alternative words: House of councilors, Senate, Japanese house of councilors, Japanese senate
related topics: Shugiin
related web sites: http://www.shangiin.go.jp
explanation: According to the 1946 constitution, the senate members are elected by Japanese nationals from 20 years old and eligible from 30. The term of office is 6 years but a half of members have to go to the election each 3 years. They are elected form prefectural constituencies or nation wide proportional constituency. If the senate contradicts with the diet on the choice of prime minister, budget or other laws, the diet prevails over the senate with 2/3 of vote unless 60 days later.
alternative words: Sankeishinbun, Sankei shinmbun, Sankeishimbun, Sankei, Sanke, Sankei newspaper
related web sites: http://www.sankei.co.jp
explanation: One of Japanese largest newspapers with 2 million copies. Founded in 1933 by Maeda Hisakichi in Osaka as a financial paper, "Nihon kogyo shinbun". During world war II, it merged with other financial papers in western Japan and became "Sangyo keizai shinbun". After extended its business to Tokyo, it became a general newspaper but not prosperous. In 1958, Mizuno Shigeo took over the management and transformed it to a great media group, "Fuji Sankei group" by allying with Fuji TV.
alternative words: Eisaku Sato, Satou Eisaku, Eisaku Satou
related topics: Jiminto
explanation: Born in 1901 in Yamaguchi prefecture. After graduated at Tokyo university, he worked in transport ministry until 1948. In 1949, he was elected in the parliament with the ticket of Jiyuto and occupied different ministerial posts. He was accused of accepting bribes from shipbuilders in 1954 but finally released. He succeeded Ikeda Hayato as prime minister in 1964 and remained the function until 1972. During his reign, Japan became an economic power. He received Nobel Peace prize in 1974.
Shaminto社民党 社会民主党 社会党 日本社会党
alternative words: Shamin to, Shakaiminshuto, Shakaito, Shakai to, Democratic socialist party, Socialist party, Japanese socialist party
keywords: political party
related topics: Jiminto , Doi Takako , Minshuto
related web sites: http://www.sdp.or.jp
explanation: Founded in 1945, Shakaito became the first party of Japanese parliament in 1947 election but soon split to right and left fractions due to an internal conflict. In 1955, they merged again to form the main opposition against Jiminto. In 1996, Shakaito (socialist party) changed the name to "Shaminto" (democratic socialist part) and participated to different coalition governments. In 1998, many parliament members left Shaminto and entered Minshuto (democratic party).
alternative words: House of representatives, Diet, Japanese house of representatives, Japanese diet, Shuugiin
related topics: Sangiin
related web sites: http://www.shugiin.go.jp , http://www.shugiintv.go.jp
explanation: According to the 1946 constitution, the diet members are elected by Japanese nationals from 20 years old and eligible from 25. The term of office is 4 years but dissoluble by the prime minister. If the senate contradicts with the diet on the choice of prime minister, budget or other laws, the diet prevails over the senate with 2/3 of vote unless 60 days later. Initially they were elected from mid size constituencies (2-5 seats each). From 1994, a mixture of proportional by region and one seat constituencies
alternative words: Soka gakkai, Soukagakkai, Souka gakkai
keywords: new religion
related topics: Komeito , Ikeda Daisaku
related web sites: http://www.sokagakkai.or.jp
explanation: Founded by an educator, Makiguchi Tsunesaburo and his assistant Toda Josei in 1937. During World war II, both men were jailed due to their opposition to Shinto rite and Makiguchi died in prison. After the war, this educational movement, thanks to an association with Buddhist sect, Nichiren shoshu and an energetic president Ikeda Daisaku since 1960, grew quickly. It also founded a political party, Komeito in 1964. After hindering a freedom of speech, Ikeda left the presidency in 1979.
alternative words: Kakuei Tanaka
related topics: Jiminto , Lockheed scandal
related web sites: http://www.niigata-nippo.co.jp/tanaka/ta_index.html
explanation: Born in 1918 in Niigata prefecture. He founded his own construction firm at the age 19. He was elected in the parliament in 1947 with the ticket of Minshuto then adhered to Jiminto. He occupied different ministerial posts before becoming a prime minister in 1972. He launched a vast plan to remodel Japan (Nihon Kaizo ron) but it provoked a huge inflation which forced him de resign in 1974. After Lockheed scandal, he was arrested in 1976. He died in December 1993.
Tanaka Makiko田中真紀子 田中眞紀子
alternative words: Makiko Tanaka
related topics: Tanaka Kakuei , Koizumi Junichiro , Jiminto , Ministry of foreign affairs
related web sites: http://allabout.co.jp/career/politicsabc/subject/msub_makiko.htm , http://www.makiko.gr.jp
explanation: Born in 1944 in Tokyo as a daughter of Tanaka Kakuei. Graduated from Waseda university, she was first elected in fief of his father, Niigata in 1993 and became technology minister in the next year. Being a good orator, she is very popular among Jiminto's supporters. She was appointed as foreign minister of Koizum's cabinet in 2001 but provoked soon a trouble due to her anti American and pro China stance, and was dismissed from the cabinet position.
Tsukuru kaiつくる会 新しい歴史教科書をつくる会
alternative words: Tsukurukai, Atarashii kyokasho o tsukuru kai, Japanese Society for History Textbook Reform
related web sites: http://www.tsukurukai.com , http://www.fusosha.co.jp , http://user2.allnet.ne.jp/noz/kotoba/Politics/Tsukuru.html
explanation: In order to replace the current Japanese school manuals frequently echoing the opinion of Koreans and Chinese about Japanese war crimes and colonialism, a volunteer's organization was founded in 1997. In 2001, their manual of history was passed the control of a commission and published by Fusosha. But it provoked a large protestation movement in China and Korea. In Korea, it reached the apex with the boycott of Japanese products and cultural exchange programs.