Online dictionary of Iraq war: Karbala,Kirkuk,Kurd,Kut,Kuwait,Mahdi Army,Massoud Barzani,Mosul,Muhammed Saeed,Muqtada al-Sadr

This is the online dictionary of Iraq developed by Free Light Software. By clicking on an Arabic word, you can find Iraq related sites from Arabic search engines. By clicking on a globe icon, you can display the locality on a map of Iraq.
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alternative words: Kerbala
keywords: town
related web sites: ,
explanation: Located 100km southwest of Baghdad, Kerbala is renowned for the tomb of Hussein, a grandson of Prophet. He was killed by the army of Yazid during the battle of Karbala that took place nearby in 680. An ancient city, Karbala was founded during Babylonian epoch, well before Islamic conquest. Its population is at 570,000.


alternative words: Karkuk, Kerkuk
keywords: town
related topics: Kurd , Ottoman Empire , Turkmen
related web sites: , , ,
explanation: Located in the northern Iraq, Kirkuk region had been already inhabited 5000 years ago. During the Assyrian reign, about 3000 years ago, a great citadel was built there. After the fall of the Ottoman Empire, British began the oil exploration in Iraq and in 1927, an oil field was discovered in Kirkuk. Producing now 70% of Iraqi oils, Kirkuk has become the centre of a bitter dispute, not only among Arabs and Kurds but also Turkmen who had settled during the Ottoman empire.


Kurd Kurd
keywords: ethnic group
related topics: Iraq , Ottoman Empire
related web sites:
explanation: Populating mostly the boarder zone between Turkey, Iraq, Iran and Syria, they form one of the largest ethnic groups without own country. After a dismantlement of Ottoman empire, their dream to get a homeland has failed nearby. On the contrary, the repression against them has intensified while armed struggles continue in each country. Kurd populations are respectively 12 millions in Turkey, 5 millions in Iraq, 4 millions in Iran and 2 millions in Syria. They are living with shepherding and agriculture.


Kut Kut
alternative words: Al Kut
keywords: town
related topics: Tigris river , Euphrates river , Ottoman Empire , Baghdad
related web sites: ,
explanation: Located 170 km southeast of Baghdad on the bank of Tigris river and at the bifurcation point of canal Shatt al-Gharraf which joins Euphrates river, Kut is the market town of a rich agricultural region. During WWI, fierce battles took place between Ottoman and British armies and ended with a capitulation of the latter led by General Townsend in April 1916 after a long siege. The population of Kut is about 380,000.


Kuwait Kuwait Kuwait
alternative words: Dawlat al Kuwayt
keywords: state
related topics: Iraq , Ottoman Empire
related web sites:
explanation: Middle-east country surrounded by Iraq in North, Saudi-Arabia in South and Persian Gulf in East. A part of Ottoman empire since 16th century, British detached it by creating a protectorate state in 1899. The discovery of oil fields has made it one of the richest country. Kuwait declared independence in 1961. Considering Kuwait as a relic of colonialism, Iraq has annexed it in 1990 but withdrawn next year during Gulf War. Population: 2 millions, surface: 17,820 km2, capital: Kuwait city.

Mahdi Army

Mahdi Army
alternative words: Jaish-i-Mahdi, Al-Mahdi, Jaish al-Mahdi
keywords: organization
related topics: Muqtada al-Sadr , Najaf
related web sites: ,
explanation: Initially charitable organization which had distributed foods to poor Shia residents of Sadre city in Northern Baghdad, it grew to a paramilitary organization and took the military control of not only Sadre city but also some Shia towns such as Najaf by taking advantage of a political vacuum left after the fall of Saddam Hussein. Its members count no more than 10,000 but very active under the direction of a charismatic leader, Muqtada al-Sadr. Al-Mahdi means "Messiah".

Massoud Barzani

Massoud Barzani Massoud Barzani
alternative words: Massoud al-Barzani
keywords: famous person, statesman
related topics: Kurd , Iraqi Governing Council
related web sites: ,
explanation: Born in 1946, as a son of Mustafa Barzani in the ephemeral republic of Kurdistan in Iran. After the collapse of the republic, he fled to Iraq with his grand father and received the Arabic education there. As a leader of KDP, he negotiated a Kurdish autonomy with the central Iraqi government in 1970 but entered an armed rebellion after the betrayal. He succeeded the general secretary of KDP on his father's death in 1979. After the fall of Saddam's regime, Barzani has been appointed member of IGC.


Mosul Mosul
alternative words: Al Mawsil, Moswl
keywords: town
related topics: Tigris river
related web sites: ,
explanation: Built near the ancient Assyrian city of Nineveh, in the northwest of Iraq on the Tigris river, Mosul has developed on a caravan route which connected Iran with the Mediterranean sea. In 1258, Mosul was destroyed by Mongol invaders. Mosul was renowned as the producer of muslin textile but the main industry nowadays is the oil refinery thinks to the vicinity of oil fields. Its population is about 1.7 millions and composed of Kurdish majority and Arabic speaking Assyrian Christians.

Muhammed Saeed

Muhammed Saeed Muhammed Saeed
alternative words: Muhammed Saeed al-Sahaf, Mohammed Said al-Sahhaf
keywords: famous person, statesman
related web sites: , ,
explanation: Born 1940 in Hilla near Karbala, al-Sahaf is a rare Shia Muslim who could get a high rank position in the Sunnit dominated government. After having served as ambassador in different countries, he was appointed in1992 foreign minister but in 2001, he was removed from this position due to a less satisfactory performance, compared to his predecessor, Tarik Aziz. Because of his funny comments on Iraq War as Iraq's information minister, he was nicknamed "Comical Ali".

Muqtada al-Sadr

Muqtada al-Sadr
alternative words: Moqtada Sadr
keywords: cleric, famous person
related topics: Mahdi Army
related web sites: ,
explanation: Born in 1974 as the youngest son of a Shia dignitary, Muhammad Sadiq Sadr, assassinated in 1999 by Saddam's secrete police, is a rising political figure in the post war Iraq. Though he has not received enough education to be recognized in Shia hierarchy, thanks to the reputation of his farther and a support from Iranians (he married with a family of Iranian dignitary), he has successfully organized a militia army, al Mahdi to oppose the coalition force.

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Last update: 16/08/08 15:45