alternative words: Al Najaf, An Najaf
related web sites: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Najaf
explanation: An Islamic holy city, located 160km south of Baghdad, Najaf is renowned for the tomb of Ali ibn Abi Talib, a nephew of Prophet and the 4th caliph. The site is particularly venerated by Shia Muslims because they only recognise Ali as successor of Prophet. The town is frequented by Shia scholars such as Ayatollah Khomeini who sojourned 13 years during exiles. The population is at 560,000. Najaf means "high land without waters" in Arabic.
alternative words: Nasiriyah, Al Nasiriyah, An Nasiriyah
related topics: Shia , Ottoman Empire , Euphrates river
related web sites: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nasiriya , http://i-cias.com/e.o/nasiriyah.htm , http://www.greatestcities.com/Middle_East/Iraq/An_Nasiriyah_Nasiriya_city.html
explanation: Located 375km southeast of Baghdad on the Euphrates river, Nasiriyah was founded by Sheikh Nasir Sadun during Ottoman period. During the world war I in 1915, British troops captured the city after a fierce battle against Turkish army. After the Gulf war in 1991, Nasiriyah was a centre of Shia revolt against Saddam Hussein, which was violently repressed by Republican army. Located close the ancient Sumerian city of Ur, Nasiriyah's museum is rich in archaeology collections. Its population is at 530,000.
alternative words: Nouri Kamel al-Maliki, Jawad al-Maliki
keywords: famous person, statesman
related topics: Karbala , Hilla
related web sites: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nouri_al-Maliki
explanation: Born in Al Hindiyah between Karbala and Al Hillah, in 1950, he studied Arabic literature in Baghdad university. Due to his activism in Islamic Dawa Party, he was sentenced to death in 1980 and had to flee to Iran. In Syria, he organized an American backed resistance to Saddam Hussein, Iraqi National Congress. After returned back to Iraq in 2003, he worked in purging Baath party officials then drafting an Iraqi constitution. Appreciated as a tough negociator, he was apponited Prime Mininister in April 2006.
alternative words: Turkish Empire, Osman Empire, Ottoman
related topics: Iraq
related web sites: http://www.friesian.com/turkia.htm , http://dictionary.al-islam.com/Arb/Dicts/SelDict.asp?TL=1&DI=47&Theme=63
explanation: Empire founded by a Turkish tribal leader of western Anatolia, Osman I, in 14th century. In 1453, Mehmed II conquered Constantinople (Istanbul). During the reign of Selim I in 16th century, the empire reached the apex and controlled all the middle east and south eastern Europe as well as north Africa and Caucasus region. After loosing the battle before Vienna in 1683, the empire began to decline slowly. The dismantlement of Ottoman, consequent to the defeat of WWI, generated many new nations such as Iraq.
alternative words: Qusay Saddam Hussein, Qusai Hussein
keywords: famous person
related topics: Saddam Hussein , Uday Hussein , Mosul
related web sites: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qusai_Hussein , http://www.iraqfoundation.org/news/2002/joct/3_newson.html
explanation: Born in 1966 as the second son of Saddam Hussein and his cousin Sajida Talfah. Contrary to his elder brother, Uday, who got a bad reputation as cruel man, Qusay kept a low profile. Chosen by Saddam Hussein as his heir in 2000, he had controlled Iraqi Intelligence Service and Republican Guard before Iraqi War. He was killed in July 2003 at Mosul by American troops together with Uday and his son Mustapha.
alternative words: Ar-Ramadi, Al-Ramadi, Ramadiyah
related topics: Falluja , Baghdad , Euphrates river
related web sites: http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/iraq/ramadiyah.htm
explanation: Located 110km west of Baghdad, on the Euphrates river, Ramadi was founded during Ottoman period in 19th century. In 1917, British troops captured Ramadi from Turks to cut off a communication line between Baghdad and the Meditaneeen sea. Belonging to so called Sunni Triangle, Ramadi is one of the strong hold of the Iraqi resistance against Americans along with Falluja located nearby. The current population is about 470,000.
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