alternative words: Ba'ath Party, Baath
related topics: Saddam Hussein
related web sites: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baath_Party , http://www.iraqinews.com/party_baath_party.shtml , http://www.baath-party.org
explanation: Secular pan-Arabic party founded in Damascus, Syria in 1947, of which ideologies is based on 3 dogmas: Freedom (from colonialism), Unity (of Arabic nations) and Socialism. They arrived to the power in February 1963 in Iraq and one month later in Syria. After successive internal struggles and purges, the moderate wings were progressively eliminated and the dictatorship was established: by Saddam Hussein in Iraq and Hafez al-Assad in Syria. Baath means "renaissance" in Arabic.
alternative words: Bagdad
related topics: Iraq , Tigris river
related web sites: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baghdad , http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/2865747.stm , http://www.baghdadmuseum.org , http://i-cias.com/e.o/baghdad.htm , http://www.bartleby.com/65/ba/Baghdad.html
explanation: Baghdad was founded (762) on the west bank of the Tigris by the Abbasid caliph Mansur, when he moved the capital of the Muslim empire from Damascus. The prosperity of Baghdad at that epoch is well illustrated by the tales of Thousand and One Nights. In 1258, the army of Mongols destroyed completely Baghdad. Now Baghdad is spread over the both sides of the Tigris river and its population is around 5 millions. National Museum of Iraq contains the treasure of Mesopotamian civilisation.
alternative words: Sayyd Mohammed Baqir al-Hakim
related topics: Najaf , Saddam Hussein , Abdul-Aziz al-Hakim
related web sites: http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/iraq/baqir-hakim.htm , http://www.sciri.btinternet.co.uk/English/About_Us/Sayed/sayed.html , http://hussaynia.com/hakim/hakimmaryrdom.htm
explanation: Born in 1939 as a son of Muhsin al-Hakim at Najaf and received the religious education. He founded with Sayed Mohammed Baqir Al-Sadr, an Islamic political movement and consequently he was persecuted by Saddam. In 1980, shortly after the outbreak of Iran-Iraq war, he fled to Iran with his brother Abdul-Aziz al-Hakim and founded "Supreme Council for the Islamic Revolution in Iraq". In May 2003, after the fall of Saddam's regime, he returned from Iran but assassinated 3 months later at Najaf.
alternative words: Baqubah, Ba'qubah
related topics: Baghdad
related web sites: http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/iraq/baqubah.htm
explanation: Located 60 kilometers northeast of Baghdad on Diyala river, Baquba town was founded in the pre-Islamic period and means "Jacob's house" in Aramaic. Baquba was prosperous during Abbasid caliphate as an important way station between Baghdad and Iran, and for its fruit orchards. The current population is about 280,000. Americans have settled one of recruiting centers for Iraqi Armed Forces there.
alternative words: Al Basrah, Basrah, Basara, Busra, Busrah, Bassorah
related topics: Ottoman Empire , Shatt al Arab
related web sites: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basrah , http://www.bartleby.com/65/ba/Basra.html
explanation: Located near Persian Gulf and Iranian border on Shatt al-Arab, Basra is the Iraq's second largest city with the population of 1.4 millions. It was founded by Caliph Omar in 636. In the tales of Thousand and One Nights, Sindbad the sailor began his voyage there. Turkish Ottoman conquered Basra in 1668 and became the theatre of repeated battles against Iranians. During Iran-Iraq war of 1980's, Basra was heavily shelled by Iranians. Surrounded by many petroleum wells, the oil refinery is its main activity.
alternative words: Euphrates, Euphrate
related topics: Tigris river , Basra , Shatt al Arab
related web sites: http://i-cias.com/e.o/euphrats.htm , http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euphrates
explanation: With the Tigris river, the Euphrates is one of the 2 largest rivers in the middle east. It takes a source from the eastern Turkish mountains, crosses Syria and Iraq, then pours onto Persian Gulf after merging with the Tigris at Qurna near Basra to become Shatt al Arab. Crossing an arid region, the water distribution provokes frequently a dispute among riverside countries. The Euphrates is cited by the Bible as one of 4 rivers that flow from the garden of Eden. Its length is 2,780 km.
alternative words: Fallujah, Al Fallujah
related topics: Euphrates river
related web sites: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fallujah
explanation: Located 70km west of Baghdad, on the road to Syria and Jordan and on the Euphrates river. Though Fallujah has been inhabited since Babylonian times, it had remained relatively anonymous until April 2004, when a fierce battle between the coalition force and Al Sadr's militia took place. Belonging to so called Sunni triangle, many residents got Saddam's favour during his reign. Its population is at 285,000.
related topics: Saddam Hussein , Uday Hussein , Baath Party
related web sites: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fedayeen_Saddam
alternative words: Ghazi Mashal Ajil al-Yawer
keywords: famous person, statesman
related topics: Iyad Allawi , Iraqi governing council , Jalal Talabani
related web sites: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ghazi_Mashal_Ajil_al-Yawer
explanation: Born 1958 at Mosul in a leader's family of the powerful Shamar tribe. He studied petroleum engineering in Saudi-Arabia, then UK and USA. After the fall of Saddam's regime in 2003, he returned back to Iraq to become a member of Iraqi interim governing council. The latter appointed Ghazi al-Yawer as a Iraq's interim president in June 2004. After a poor performance of his Sunni party in the first general election held in January 2005, he was replaced by Jalal Talabani and became himself a vice president.
alternative words: Desert Storm
related topics: Kuwait , Iraq , Saddam Hussein
related web sites: http://archives.cbc.ca/IDD-1-71-593/conflict_war/gulf_war/ , http://www.desert-storm.com , http://www.gulfweb.org
explanation: Iraq considers Kuwait as a relic of the colonialism. Asserting Kuwait to pump its oil through the border line, Saddam Hussein ordered to invade Kuwait in August 1990 and annex it. After a condemnation by UN, a coalition force of 34 nations led by US was formed. On January 17, 1991, the war with a code name of Desert Storm began. Before the high-tech weapons of Americans, Iraqi army couldn't resist excepting for some Scud missiles launched to Israel and Saudi Arabia. One month later, Kuwait was liberated.
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