alternative words: Kabul city, Kabol, City of Kabul
related topics: Afghanistan
related web sites: http://www.geocities.com/afghanistan_ca/Kabul.html
explanation: Capital of Afghanistan, located in east of the country, on the southern skirt of Hindukush mountains and along Kabul river. It occupies a strategic place on the road, which links central Asia and India: Khyber pass is just nearby. Kabul got a prominence in 1504 when it became the capital of Mugal empire founded by Babur. The main activities were leather, furniture and glassware but Kabul was devastated during a civil war following Soviet withdrawal in 1989. The total population is 1,400,000.
alternative words: Kandahar city, Qandahar
related topics: Taliban , Muhammad Omar
related web sites: http://www.geocities.com/afghanistan_ca/Kandahar.html
explanation: Capital of Kandahar province in south of Afghanistan, located on a fertile valley of 1000m high which produces fruits, grain, tobacco and cotton. It was the capital of Durani dynasty founded by Ahmad Shah in 1747. After the withdrawal of Soviet troops in 1989 and a chaotic civil war period, which followed, Taliban (religious students) led by Omar have conquered nearly all Afghanistan, stating from Kandahar. The total population is 223,000. It is de facto capital of Afghanistan.
keywords: pakistan, state
related topics: Al Qaeda
related web sites: http://www.kashmir-information.com
explanation: Located in the northern India subcontinent, Kashimir has been the main cause of conflict between India and Pakistan since the partition of British India in 1947: Hindu ruler wished Kashmir attached to India while the inhabitants, mot of them Muslims, preferred Pakistan. Since then India and Pakistan entered 2 times large border clashes (1965 and 1971) and Kashmir remained divided. The surface is 220,000 km2 and the population 10 millions. Pakistan is now accused to let Al Qaeda operate there.
related topics: Jalalabad , Peshawar , Alexander the great
related web sites: http://www.afghan-network.net/khyber.html , http://www.afghan-network.net/Culture/anglo-afghan.html
explanation: Located between Jalalabad in Afghanistan and Peshawar in Pakistan, Kyber pass was used by many conquerors such as Alexander the great, Genghis Khan and Tamerlane to invade India from the central Asia. In 1842, 16,000 British and Indian troops were massacred by Afghans. The highest point is 920m at the border between Afghanistan and Pakistan. The highway as well as railroad was opened in 1920. Becoming a passage of drug and arm traffics during Afghan war, Khyber pass is temporarily closed.
alternative words: Zahir shah, Mohammad Zahir Shah, Zahir, Zaher
keywords: famous person, king, statesman
related topics: Muhammad Daoud , Kabul , Durrani dynasty
related web sites: http://www.afghan-web.com/bios/today/zahirshah.html , http://www.afghanan.net/afghanistan/sites/modern.htm
explanation: Born in 1914 as s son of Afghan king, Nadir shah and received an education at Kabul and in France. After an assassination of his father in 1933, Zahir succeeded him at the age 19. With his cousin, Muhammad Daoud as prim minister, he has modernized Afghanistan by infrastructure development and women's emancipation. He promulgated a constitution in 1964, which introduced the free election. During his trip in Europe in 1973, he was forced to abdicate by Daoud. Since then he lives in Italy.
Loya Jirgaalternative words: Loyajirga
keywords: king, organization
related topics: Pashtun , Taliban
related web sites: http://www.loyajirga.com
explanation: Literally "grand assembly", Loya Jirga originated from an institution of Pashtun tribe: tribal chiefs and religious authorities had been convened for an important decision such as election of king or war declaration. After an eviction of king Amanullah Khan, it was Loya Jirga that designated Mohammad Nadir as successor. In modern Afghanistan, Loya Jirga had been also convened for recognition of new constitutions and regimes. It is now convened to designate a successor of Taliban regime.
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