alternative words: Karmal, Najibullah Ahmadzai
keywords: communism, famous person, statesman
related topics: Hafizollah Amin , PDPA , Saur revolution
related web sites: http://www.afghan-info.com/politbiogr.htm , http://www.afghan-web.com/bios/yest/karmal.html , http://www.sabawoon.com/afghanpedia/Personalities.BabrakKarmal.shtm
explanation: Born in 1929 in Kabul as son of an army general. He was an active communist student at Kabul university. As founder member of PDPA in 1965, he led Parcham faction. After Saur revolt of 1978, he became foreign minister but left soon the cabinet due to a conflict with Khalq faction. After the assassination of Amin in late 1979, he became the president of Afghanistan thanks to a Russian support but due his nationalist stance, he was replaced by Najibullah. He died in 1996 of liver disease.
alternative words: Balkh city, Vazirabad
related topics: Mazar i Sharif , Alexander the great
related web sites: http://www.encyclopedia.com/articlesnew/14573.html , http://www.geocities.com/afghanistan_ca/Balkh.html
explanation: Located in northern Afghanistan near Mazar i Sharif, Balkh is one of the oldest cities in the world. A legend says that Zoroaster would be born there. It became the capital of Bactria, one of the kingdoms founded by a general of Alexander the great in 4th century BC. Balkh was destroyed completely during Mongol invasion in 13th century. Balkh was restored by Tamerlane in 15th century but after the alleged discovery of Ali's tomb at Mazar i Sharif, Balkh has declined. The total population is 3000.
alternative words: Bamian, Baamiyaan, Buddha of Bamiyan, Buddha statue of Bamiyan
related topics: Taliban , Kabul
related web sites: http://hss.fullerton.edu/comparative/bam_buddhas.htm , http://www.purabudaya.com/resources/bamiyan/bamiyan.htm , http://www.gandhara.com.au/afghan.html
explanation: Located 230km northwest of Kabul and 2500m high, Bamiyan was one of the centers of Gandhara Buddhist culture 2000 years ago with 2 huge Buddha statues (53m and 38m) carved in 4th century on the cliff of Hindu Kush mountains. Chinese pilgrims of 7th century left us a story of beautifully colored colossal Buddha. In 8th century, when the area was invaded by Arabs, the monks abandoned monasteries. In March 2001, in spite of a worldwide protestation Taliban completely demolished them
alternative words: Rabbani, Rabani, President Burhanuddin Rabbani, President Rabbani, Professor Burhanuddin Rabbani, Professor Rabbani
keywords: famous person, statesman
related topics: Kabul , Muhammad Daoud , Jamiat i Islami , Peshawar
related web sites: http://www.afghan-web.com/bios/today/brabbani.html
explanation: Born in 1940 in Badakhshan province of northeastern Afghanistan. After brilliant studies at Kabul university, he was appointed professor in 1963. He went then to Egypt to get a master degree in Islamic philosophy. After the return, he became the head of Jamiat i Islami. When president Daoud banned any Islamic parties, he fled to Peshawar in 1974 to organize a resistance. After the collapse of the communist regime in 1992, he became president of Afghanistan but was driven out by Taliban from Kabul.
CDCalternative words: Centers for disease control and prevention
related topics: Anthrax
related web sites: http://www.cdc.gov
explanation: Founded in 1946 and located in Atlanta, Georgia, CDC is a federal agency of US health ministry, charged with prevention and protection of US citizens against any diseases. It gives currently official information of anthrax threat in US soil.
Ciproalternative words: Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride, Ciprofloxacin
related topics: Anthrax
related web sites: http://www.cipro.com , http://www.fda.gov/cder/drug/infopage/cipro/cipro_faq.htm
explanation: Cipro is an antibiotic developed by a German company, Bayer and considered one of the most versatile means to fight against the inhaled form of anthrax. It will quickly inhibit the DNA synthesis of bacteria to eliminate it after an oral administration. In order to avoid an apparition of drug resistant mutants and a side effect of the drug, it is recommended not to take it without the doctor's consent.
alternative words: Afghan Farsi, Persian
related topics: Afghanistan
related web sites: http://members.ozemail.com.au/~abawi/dariintro.htm
explanation: Dari, Afghan variant of Farsi (Persian language) was a court language used by aristocrats and serves also as lingua franca used by merchants all over Afghanistan. Dari is spoken by more than one half of the population. The constitution of 1964 declared Pashto and Dari as 2 official languages of Afghanistan.
Durrani dynastyalternative words: Durrani
keywords: king, state
related topics: King Zahir , Muhammad Daoud , Afghanistan
related web sites: http://www.sabawoon.com/afghanpedia/Dynasty.Durrani.shtm , http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/people/A0834704.html
explanation: Ahmad Khan Abdali was a pashtun general of Persian Emperor, Nadir Shah. After the assassination of Nadir shah in 1747, Ahmad Khan proclaimed independence and founded Durrani dynasty. His territory extended from Afghanistan to New Deli but Durrani dynasty had to cede gradually the Indian part to British empire. King Amanollah Khan fought against British invaders by westernizing Afghanistan. The last Afghan king, Zahir shah was deposed by his cousin, Daoud in 1973.
alternative words: Hekmatyar, Engineer Hekmatyar
keywords: famous person, statesman
related topics: Taliban , Burhanuddin Rabbani , Ahmad Shah Masoud , Hezb e Islami
related web sites: http://www.afghan-web.com/bios/today/ghekmatyar.html
explanation: Born in 1948 in Konduz province of northern Afghanistan. After a military academy, he entered Kabul university to study engineering. There, he participated to an Islamic student movement and was jailed for killing of a Maoist student. He fled then to Pakistan and founded his party, Hezb e Islami. After a collapse of the communist regime in 1992, he entered a conflict with Rabbani but there were reconciled after the capture of Kabul by Taliban in 1996. He is living now in Iran.
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