Online dictionary of Afghanistan war: Abdul Haq,Abdul Qassim Fahim,Abdul Rashid Dostam,Afghanistan,Ahmad Shah Masoud,Al Jazeera,Al Qaeda,Alexander the great,Anthrax

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Abdul Haq

alternative words: Haq
keywords: famous person, statesman
related topics: Hezb e Islami , Jalalabad , Pashtun
related web sites: ,
explanation: Born in 1959 in Jalalabad. Enrolled very young in the war against the soviet occupation as member of Hezb i Islami (Khalis faction), he became the chief commander of Kabul region and organized a takeover of Kabul. After the fall of communist regime in 1992, he became a businessman in Gulf region. Thank to his fluent English, he was chosen by Americans to rally an anti Taliban movement among Pashtun tribe but he was captured in October 2001 in eastern Afghanistan and executed.

Abdul Qassim Fahim

alternative words: Fahim, General Fahim, Commander Fahim
keywords: famous person
related topics: Ahmad Shah Masoud , Taliban , Abdul Rashid Dostam , Gulbuddin Hekmatyar , United front
related web sites:
explanation: Born in 1957 in a Tajik cleric family of Panjshir valley. After an Islamic study at Kabul, he entered the resistance against communists in late 1970s and gained a confidence of commander Masoud thanks to his seriousness. After the soviet pull out in 1989, he organized Kabul defense against Hekmatyar Dostom coalition troops then against Taliban. After the assassination of Masoud in September 2001, he was promoted to the chief commander of the northern alliance.

Abdul Rashid Dostam

Abdul Rashid Dostam
alternative words: Abdul Rashid Dostum, Abdul Rashid Dostom, Dostam, Dostom, General Dostam, General Dostom
keywords: famous person, statesman
related topics: Burhanuddin Rabbani , Gulbuddin Hekmatyar , Mazar i Sharif , Uzbek , United front
related web sites:
explanation: Born in 1954 in Juzjian province of northern Afghanistan. Once he had been a communist general but when Soviets pulled out from Afghanistan in 1989, he betrayed Najibullah's regime and created his own state by occupying the northern region around Mazar-i-Sharif where his ethnic group, Uzbek is in the majority. He made once a coalition with Hekmatyar to fight against Rabbani's government but was then defeated by Taliban and lost his power base. He is now fighting with Northern alliance against Taliban.


alternative words: Republic of Afghanistan, Islamic republic of Afghanistan, Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan
keywords: state
related topics: Kabul , Dari , Pashtu , Hazara , Pashtun , Tajik , Uzbek
related web sites: , , ,
explanation: Located in central Asia, Afghanistan is surrounded in west by Iran, in east and south by Pakistan and north by newly created republics: Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan. The country is mountainous and some peaks reach 7000m. The total surface is 647,500 sq km. Afghanistan is a multiethnic country composed with Pashtuns (35%), Tadzhik (25%) and other minorities. The total population is about 20 millions and 1 quarter is living outside Afghanistan as refugees. The regime is an Islamic republic.

Ahmad Shah Masoud

Ahmad Shah Masoud
alternative words: Ahmad Shah Masud, Masood, Massoud, Masud, Lion of Panshir, Ahmad Shah Massoud, Ahmed Shah Masood, Ahmad Massoud, Ahmed Massoud
keywords: famous person, statesman
related topics: Burhanuddin Rabbani , Muhammad Daoud , Gulbuddin Hekmatyar , United front , Peshawar , Panjshir valley
related web sites:
explanation: Born in 1956 in northern suburb of Kabul. After high school, he entered Jamiat i Islami led by Rabbani to oppose Daoud's regime. After defeat, he fled to Peshawar and learnt guerrilla tactics. Then, he returned back to Afghanistan to fight against Soviet troops. After the collapse of the communist regime in 1992, he became defense minister but left the cabinet due to a conflict with Hekmatyar and organized a resistance against Taliban in northern Afghanistan. He was assassinated in 2001. He was a Tajik.

Al Jazeera

Al Jazeera
alternative words: Al Jazera, Al Jaziira, Al Jazira, Al Jazeera news, Al Jazera news, Al Jaziira news, Al Jazira news, Al Jazera TV, Al Jazira TV
keywords: organization
related topics: Osama bin Laden , Taliban
related web sites: ,
explanation: Satellite TV channel of Arabic language founded by 1995 by Emir Hamad Khalifa of Qatar after a palace coup against his father. They are claiming to defend a freedom of speech, by showing different opinions but many Arabic governments accuse Al Jazeera of pushing people to revolt. Al Jazeera is the unique media company that has correspondents granted by Taliban and broadcasted the last information on bin Laden that irritated the US government and media. Al Jazeera means "island" in Arabic.

Al Qaeda

Al Qaeda
alternative words: Al Qaeda organization, Al Qaida, Al Qaida organization, Al Qaedah, Al Qaidah, Alqaeda, Alqaida, Al Queda
keywords: islam, organization, terrorism
related topics: Osama bin Laden , Soviet invasion
related web sites: ,
explanation: Islamic fundamentalist group founded by Osama bin Laden in 1988 during a fight against the Soviet troops in Afghanistan. After the withdrawal of Soviet union in 1989, the group has continued to recruit more members thanks to the fortune of bin Laden and switched their goal to the fight against American imperialism and Zionism. Al Qaeda, being suspected as an origin of September 11 attack, their bases have been destroyed by American bombings. Al Qaeda counts about 3000 permanent members.

Alexander the great

alternative words: Alexander, Emperor Alexander
keywords: famous person, statesman
related topics: Khyber pass
related web sites: ,
explanation: Born in 356 BC in Macedonian royal family. After the assassination of his father Philip, he was enthroned to the king in 336 BC. He conquered first Egypt and built Alexandria. After having captured Persepolis, Alexander continued the route to the central Asia by chasing Darius who was later killed by his owns. Alexander's troops then passed through Afghanistan and Khyber pass to invade India. When his soldiers refused to go further, he decided to return back. He died in 323 BC due to a fever at Babylon.


alternative words: Anthrax disease, Bacillus Anthracis
keywords: terrorism
related topics: Al Qaeda , CDC , Cipro
related web sites: , ,
explanation: Anthrax is a typical cattle disease caused by Bacillus Anthracis and usually contaminates, through skin or inhalation, persons who frequently contact with animals such as shepherds. Already studied by Robert Koch and Louis Pasteur in the late 19th century, it can be fought by serum or antibiotic if the therapy is applied earlier unless mortal due to the toxin of bacteria. During the cold war, it was extensively studied as biological weapon and a factory explosion killed many persons in USSR in 1979.

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