Online dictionary of history and traditions in Japan: Kukai,Kumaso,Kuni,Kuni no miyatsuko,Kunigae,Kuroda Yoshitaka,Kushunkotan,Kusunoki Masashige,Kyogen,Kyoto shoshidai

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Kukai

kuukai kouboutaishi
alternative words: Kuukai, Kobodaishi, Kobo-daishi, Kobo daishi, Kouboudaishi, Kobotaishi, Kouboutaishi
keywords: buddhism, china, famous person, priest
related topics: Shingon sect , Heian period , Buddhism , Esoteric Buddhism , Saicho
related web sites: http://www.kobodaishi.org
explanation: Born in 774 in Kagawa prefecture. He learned first in Buddhism and Confucianism Kinki region. Then he trained in different sanctuaries for 7 years and left many legends with the name of Kobotaishi. In 804, he went to China with Saicho to bring a new Buddhism doctrine (Esoteric Buddhism) to Japan and created Shingon sect. Kongobuji temple opened by him at Mount Koya in Wakayama prefecture still remains an important sanctuary. He died in 835.

Kumaso

kumaso
alternative words: Kumaso tribe
keywords: minority
related topics: Nihonshoki , Nara period , Empress Jingu , Prince Yamatotakeru , Silla , Hayato
explanation: Minority living in south Kyushu until Nara period. Nihonshoki says that the 12th Emperor Keiko and his son Prince Yamatotakeru both conducted military missions in order to subjugate them. It also says that the 14th Emperor Chuai (husband of Empress Jingu) fought against Kumaso in the northern Kyushu because they had revolted against Yamato court by allying with Silla kingdom on Korean peninsula. They had been assimilated during Nara period and ceased to revolt.

Kuni

kuni
alternative words: Country, State, Nation, Province
keywords: law, state
related topics: Ritsuryo system , Kokushi , Shugo , Han , Kuni no miyatsuko , Goki shichido
explanation: As any other languages, Kuni has 2 meanings: "nation" as a whole and its regional units, province. Due to her isolation, Japan used frequently the second meaning in the past. Under Ritsuryo regime of 8th century, Japan was divided into 58 kuni and 66 kuni under Engishiki of 10th century. Initially kuni was administered by kokushi appointed by Yamato court then by shugo appointed by Kamakura shogunate but they lost gradually power and han administered by daimyo became regional units.

Kuni no miyatsuko

kuninomiyatsuko
alternative words: Kuninomiyatsuko, Kuni no miyakko, Kuninomiyakko, Kokuso
keywords: law, state
related topics: Kuni , Kokushi , Ritsuryo system
explanation: Literally "country creator", it designates the governor of kuni (regional province) before a replacement by kokushi under Ritsuryo system of 7-8th centuries. Issued from families surrendered to Yamato court during the unification process of Japan or descents of Yamato court's princes who had replaced the resistant powers, there had been more than 100 "kuni no miyatsuko", i.e. kuni had been smaller. Under Ritsuryo system, most of them became county governor (Gunshi).

Kunigae

kunigae kunigae tennpuu ihuu
alternative words: Change of territory, Change of fief, Change of feud, Tenpu, Tempu, Ifu, Tenpuu, Tempuu, Ifuu
keywords: law
related topics: Azuchi Momoyama period , Toyotomi Hideyoshi , Battle of Sekigahara , Tokugawa Ieyasu , Kuni
explanation: It consists to change fief of a seignior. Initially a simple action to recompense his vassal by a suzerain giving a bigger fief, it became an effective political tool of Toyotomi Hideyoshi during Azuchi Momoyama period: Kunigae is not interesting if your increase is less than 100% because you lose your power base by giving up castles and other infrastructures. Kunigae reached its climax after a victory of Tokugawa Ieyasu in Battle of Sekigahara and nearly all the fiefs were reshuffled.

Kuroda Yoshitaka

kurodajyosui kurodayoshitaka
alternative words: Yoshitaka Kuroda, Kuroda Joshui, Josui Kuroda, Don Simeon
keywords: famous person, war lord
related topics: Toyotomi Hideyoshi , Ishida Mitsunari , Invasion of Korea , Tokugawa Ieyasu , Battle of Sekigahara
related web sites: http://www2n.biglobe.ne.jp/~bakauma/uma50.html , http://isweb4.infoseek.co.jp/diary/pozyu/kanbe.htm , http://www.m-network.com/sengoku/sekigahara/ishigakibaru.html , http://www.geocities.co.jp/Playtown-Spade/7676/zyakata.htm
explanation: Born in 1546 in a local seignor of Himeji. With his son Nagamasa, he followed Toyotomi Hideyosh's troops to conquer Chugoku region by fighting against Mori clan. Then, he followed Hideyosh's Kyushu campaign and received Nakatsu region in north Kyushu as fief. After Korean campaign, being in bad terms with Ishida Mitsunari, he was for Tokugawa Ieyasu during Sekigahara battle to fight against Mitsunari's partisans in Kyushu. He died in 1604. Don Simeon is his Christian name.

Kushunkotan

kushyunnkotann ootomari
alternative words: Kushun-kotan, Kushun kotan, Korsakov, Ootomari
keywords: locality, northern territory
related topics: Edo period , Ezochi , Matsumae domain , Santan people
explanation: Created in 1679 by Matsumae, it has become the biggest trading post on Sakhalin island during Edo period. It was open only during summer to trade with Ainu and Santan people. There were some hundreds Japanese sojourning there in summer and most of them left the island at the beginning of each autumn. In 1806, a Russian frigate attacked the trading post to burn out warehouses. The town was called Ootomari between 1905 and 1945. The actual Russian name is Korsakov.

Kusunoki Masashige

kusunokimasashige
alternative words: Masashige Kusunoki
keywords: famous person, war lord
related topics: Muromachi period , Ashikaga Takauji , Emperor Godaigo , Shugo , Nanbokucho period
related web sites: http://homepage2.nifty.com/kanemasu/iwawakidou-unntiku-kusunokimasasige.htm
explanation: Born in 1294 in the family of a local seignior in Osaka region. Responding to an appeal of Emperor Godaigo in 1331 to overthrow Kamakura shogunate, he resisted in Akasaka castle then Chihaya castle. By his heroic battle, he encouraged others to follow him. After the collapse of Kamakura shogunate, he became Shugo of Osaka region. When Ashikaga Takuuji betrayed Emperor Godaigo, he chased Takauji to Kyushu but he was killed in the second battle at Minatogawa of Kobe in 1336.

Kyogen

kyougenn
alternative words: Kyougen, Noh kyogen, Noh kyougen
keywords: theater
related topics: Muromachi period , Sarugaku , Noh
related web sites: http://www.wnn.or.jp/wnn-history/edo/jiyu/kyogen/ , http://www.tarokaja.com , http://www.fides.dti.ne.jp/~kyogenky/
explanation: A branch of Noh specialized in comic drama and has been always played on the same balustrade as Noh since Muromachi period. Contrary to Noh which is a music based play, Kyogen is the Japanese oldest speech based play though it is assisted by a music. Kyogen still uses the speech, custom and characters of Muromachi period. As the main schools of Kyogen, we can quote Okura, Sagi and Izumi which were patronized by Edo shogunat though Sagi school is now extinguished.

Kyoto shoshidai

kyoutoshyoshidai
alternative words: Kyoto deputy
keywords: office, title
related topics: Muromachi period , Edo shogunate , Roju , Kebiishi , Rokuhara tandai , Daimyo , Bakumatsu , Heiankyo
related web sites: http://www.netlaputa.ne.jp/~house/rekidai/kyoto.htm
explanation: During Muromachi period, "Kyoto shoshidai" was dealing with the police and judicial affairs of Kyoto like Kebiishi of Heian period and "Rokuhara tandai" of Kamakura period. Edo shugunate gave him a prerogative to monitor the activity of imperial court and daimyo of Kansai region and the post was considered springboard to Roju, the supreme function of Edo shogunate. During Bakumatsu period, Kyoto shoshidai and Osaka jodai were under the control of "Kyoto shugoshoku".

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