Online dictionary of history and traditions in Japan: Edo,Edo period,Edo shogunate,Eihe Dogen,Emperor Godaigo,Emperor Gotoba,Emperor Jimmu,Emperor Kanmu,Emperor Komei,Emperor Meiji

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Edo

edo
alternative words: Tokyo
keywords: locality
related topics: Tokugawa Ieyasu , Edo period , Shogun
related web sites: http://www.edo-tokyo-museum.or.jp , http://www3.justnet.ne.jp/~tamio-enomoto/ , http://www.gojyaku.com/tabi/edo/edo-top.htm
explanation: Located at the bottom of Tokyo bay and mouths of many rivers, Edo had been a privileged place of human activities such as temple town Asakusa and Edo castle built by Oota Doukan in 1457. But the real growth of Edo began with the arrival of Tokugawa Ieyasu to Edo in 1590 and his nomination to shogun in 1603. Each seigniors being forced to stay at Edo every 2 years, it became quickly a great consumer city of 1 million population. Edo changed its name to Tokyo in 1868.

Edo period

edojidai tokugawajidai
alternative words: Edo jidai, Edojidai, Edo era, Tokugawa period, Tokugawa jidai, Tokugawajidai, Tokugawa era, Tokugawa reign
keywords: epoch
related topics: Kabuki , Haiku , Ukiyoe , Kokugaku , Tokugawa Ieyasu , Edo shogunate , Edo
related web sites: http://www.edo-tokyo-museum.or.jp , http://www.edo.net , http://www.jidaimura.co.jp , http://www3.justnet.ne.jp/~tamio-enomoto/ , http://www.jah.ne.jp/~soso/
explanation: Period beginning with the nomination of Tokugawa Ieyasu to "shogun" in 1603 and ended with the fall of Tokugawa shogunate in 1868. The particularity of this epoch is a warless state of the whole Japan and a strict control of the contact with foreigners (Sakoku). During this long pacific period, the living standard of ordinary citizens had considerably increased thanks to the development of agriculture and craft techniques.

Edo shogunate

edobakuhu tokugawabakuhu
alternative words: Edo bakufu, Edobakufu, Tokugawa shogunate, Tokugawa bakufu
keywords: office, shogun
related topics: Edo period , Shogunate , Tokugawa Ieyasu , Tokugawa Yoshinobu , Roju , Sakoku , Gosanke , Tokugawashi
related web sites: http://www2.cnet.ne.jp/ahgama/
explanation: Shogunate beginning with the nomination of Tokugawa Ieyasu to shogun in 1603 and ending with a return back of this title by the 15th shogun, Tokugawa Yoshinobu. The shogunate office is at Edo, actual Tokyo. Contrary to other shogunates, the regime was very stable because the important functions like Roju and Bugyo were hold simultaneously by several persons. Moreover each seigniors had to let live his wife and heir at Edo as hostages.

Eihe Dogen

eiheidougenn dougenn
alternative words: Eihei Dougen, Dogen Eihe, Dougen Eihei, Dogen, Dougen
keywords: buddhism, famous person, priest
related topics: Tendai sect , Soto sect , Zen
related web sites: http://www.ic-net.or.jp/home/yaguchi/houwa/dougen.htm
explanation: Born in 1200 in a noble family of Kyoto. Lost very young both of parents, he entered Enryakuji monastery to study from Tendai sect. He then went to China in 1223 to study from Soto sect. Returned back in 1227, he wrote Fukan Zazengi which explains the practice of Zazen. Disgusted with established Buddhist sects, he moved to Fukui prefecture to build Eiheji temple. Because of hard discipline, his sect had become popular among samurai clans. He died in 1253.

Emperor Godaigo

godaigotennnou
alternative words: Godaigo tenno, Emperor Go-daigo, Go-daigo tenno, Godaigo tennou, Godaigo
keywords: emperor, famous person
related topics: Kamakura shogunate , Ashikaga Takauji , Kusunoki Masashige
related web sites: http://www.lares.dti.ne.jp/~takuhi/ , http://www.asahi-net.or.jp/~wx7s-yngd/e01/e01.html , http://www9.big.or.jp/~hiroshi1/taiheiki.htm
explanation: 96th emperor of Japan. Born in 1288, after 2 aborted putsches to overthrow Kamakura shougunate, he had been sent to Oki island as political prisoner. After the disappearance of shogunate, he returned back to Kyoto and restored the imperial regime (Kemmu restoration). But many samurais who helped him remained unhappy because of an unequal recompense. By taking advantage of the unrest, Ashikaga Takauji overthrew this regime. Godaigo died at a hidden court of Yoshino in 1339.

Emperor Gotoba

gotobatennnou gotobajyoukou
alternative words: Gotoba tenno, Retired emperor Gotoba, Gotobajoko, Gotoba joko, Gotoba
keywords: emperor, famous person
related topics: Kamakura shogunate , Shin Kokinshu , Genji , Hojoshi , Insei , Jokou
related web sites: http://www.miracle.ne.jp/rainbow/siseki2.html
explanation: Born in 1180, 82th emperor of Japan. After the assassination of Minamoto no Sanetomo, he organized Jokyu rebellion in 1221 to reestablish the lost power of Kyoto's nobility, hoping to catch enough partisans who were unhappy with the dictatorship of Hojo clan. But he lost the battle and forced exile to Oki island and died hopelessly there in 1239. He was very talented in any domain such as poem, music, go, horse riding, swimming. He supervised the edition of Shin Kokinshu.

Emperor Jimmu

jinnmutennnou jinnmu
alternative words: Jimmu Tenno, Jimmu-tenno, Jimmutenno, Emperor Jinmu, Jinmu Tenno, Jinmu-tenno, Jinmu tennou, Jinmu, Jimmu
keywords: emperor, famous person, mythology
related topics: Nihonshoki , Kojiki , Yamato dynasty
explanation: According to old Japanese history books like Kojiki or Nihonshoki, he left the southern Kyushu 2700 years ago to conquer Kinki region to become the first Emperor of Japan. There exists a great controversy on his existence: some negate it, others say he should have existed but the date of the event should be brought around the 3th century A. D. Anyway, this event should tell a migration of some folk from Kyushu to Kinki to make it a political center of Japan.

Emperor Kanmu

kannmutennnou
alternative words: Kanmu tenno, Emperor Kammu, Kammu tenno, Kanmu tennou, Kanmu, Kammu
keywords: emperor, famous person
related topics: Nagaokakyo , Heiankyo
related web sites: http://ww1.tiki.ne.jp/~i-mitu/heiannkyou.htm , http://www.asahi-net.or.jp/~SG2H-YMST/kanmu.html
explanation: Born in 737. After the death of Empress Shotoku, Tenmu branch had been extinguished and a prince of Tench branch, Konin became an emperor. Shortly after, Kanmu succeeded his father and became the 50th emperor. In order to emphasize the arrival of a new era, he moved the capital to Nagaokakyo then to Heiankyo and strived to reestablish "Ritsuryo" i.e. centralized regime. His mother being Korean origin, he engaged more foreigners in the government. He died in 806.

Emperor Komei

koumeitennnou
alternative words: Komei tenno, Komei tennou, Emperor Koumei, Koumei tenno, Koumei tennou
keywords: emperor, famous person, meiji revolution
related topics: Bakumatsu , Meiji revolution , Edo Shogunate , Emperor Meiji , Sakoku
explanation: 121th Japanese emperor. Born in 1831 as a son of Emperor Konin. Contrary to other emperors of Edo period, he refused to be a puppet and strongly criticized Edo shogunate after the abandon of 2 century old Sakoku policy in 1853. So he attracted around him many nationalists but accepted the reconciliation Tokugawa regime (Koubu gattai) by agreeing the marriage of his sister with 14th shogun, Tokugawa Iemochi. He died in 1866 due to smallpox but suspected to be poisoned.

Emperor Meiji

meijitennnou meiji
alternative words: Emperor of Meiji, Meiji tenno, Meijitenno, Meiji tennou, Emperor Meji, Meji tenno, Mejitenno, Meiji, Meji
keywords: emperor, famous person, meiji revolution
related topics: Meiji revolution , Edo shogunate , Emperor Komei , Meiji period , Sino-Japanese war , Russo-Japanese war , Emperor Taisho
related web sites: http://www.meijijingu.or.jp
explanation: 122th Japanese emperor. Born in 1852 as a son of Komei Emperor and became himself emperor in 1866. He was the central figure of a movement to abolish Edo shogunate and to transform Japan to a powerful westernized country. The constitution promulgated in 1989 (constitution of the Empire of Japan) conferred him an absolute power. After the victory against China (1895) and Russia (1905), he got a reputation of clever emperor. He died in 1912 and was enshrined at Meiji shrine.

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