Online dictionary of history and traditions in Japan: Hattori Hanzo,Hayashi Razan,Hayashi Shihei,Hayato,Heian period,Heiankyo,Heijokyo,Heike monogatari,Heishi,Hibachi

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Hattori Hanzo

hattorihannzou
alternative words: Hanzo Hattori
keywords: famous person, ninja
related topics: Sengoku period , Ninja , Iga ninja , Tokugawa Ieyasu , Akechi Mitsuhide , Oda Nobunaga
related web sites: http://www2.harimaya.com/sengoku/html/tk_hato.html , http://www.m-network.com/sengoku/ieyasu/igagoe00.html
explanation: Famous ninja boss of Sengoke period, originated from Iga region in western Mie prefecture. He got a trust of Tokugawa Ieyasu, by organizing successfully an escape of Ieyasu from Osaka to his fief of eastern Aichi prefecture during a putsch organized by Akechi Mitsuhide against Oda Nobunaga in 1582. There exist many movies and novels on his activities as chief of secret service to help Ieyasu to become shogun. A gate in west of Edo castle carries his name, "Hanzomon".

Hayashi Razan

hayashirazann
alternative words: Razan Hayashi, Razan
keywords: famous person, philosophy, scholar, statesman
related topics: Edo shogunate , Tokugawa Ieyasu , Shushigaku
related web sites: http://www2s.biglobe.ne.jp/~MARUYAMA/tokugawa/razan.htm , http://www.geocities.co.jp/Bookend-Shikibu/8679/kinnseinihonnnoshisouka.html , http://www.fsinet.or.jp/~yosshie/photo/990104/yushima.htm
explanation: Born in 1583 and became first a Buddhist monk. Then, he learned Neo Confucianism (Shushigaku) from the famous confucianist, Fujiwara Seika. In 1605, he was appointed as Confucianism instructor of Tokugawa Ieyasu thanks to his impressive knowledge of Japanese and Chinese classics. By serving 4 successive shoguns, he contributed greatly to set up different laws of Tokugawa regime such as Buke shohatto and Shushigaku as official ideology of Tokugawa regime. He died 1657.

Hayashi Shihei

hayashishihei
alternative words: Shihei Hayashi, Hayashi Shihe, Shihe Hayashi
keywords: famous person, northern territory, philosophy, scholar
related topics: Edo period , Edo shogunate , Ezochi
related web sites: http://member.nifty.ne.jp/shojishoji/history/
explanation: Ideologue of Edo period. Born in 1738 at Tokyo in a samuai family. Because of a crime committed by his father, he had been excluded from samurai's hierarchy. He studied at Nagasaki and lived in his uncle's house at Sendai. In order to get a job, he wrote many books: the most famous one is "Kaikoku heidan" which recommended sending massively colons to Hokkaido against Russian incursion. Accused of troubling the public order, his book was banned by Edo shogunate. He died in 1793.

Hayato

hayato
alternative words: Hayato tribe
keywords: minority
related topics: Kumaso , Sumo , Nihonshoki , Nara period , Yamato dynasty
explanation: Minority living in south Kyushu until Nara period. According to Nihonshoki, the tribe stemmed from Hosuseri, brother of Hohodemi who is the grandfather of Jinmu. Contrary to Kumaso, they obeyed quickly to Yamato dynasty and served as guardians of the imperial palace. During a coronation or a visit of emperors, they imitated dog's barking. So, Hayato may have stemmed from south China where many minorities believe their dog's origin. Sumo originated from their custom, too.

Heian period

heiannjidai
alternative words: Heianjidai, Heian reign, Heian jidai, Heian era, Heanjidai, Hean period, Hean jidai
keywords: epoch
related topics: Genji monogatari , Kokinwakashu , Heishi , Taira no Kiyomori , Genji , Fujiwara family , Heiankyo , Shoen , Taira no Masakado
related web sites: http://homepage1.nifty.com/shiun-sai/ , http://www2s.biglobe.ne.jp/~yae-sou/ , http://www2u.biglobe.ne.jp/~heian/
explanation: It designates the long period which spans from 794 when Kyoto became Japanese capital until 1192 when the political center of Japan was shifted to Kamakura. The first half period is rather a prolongation of Nara period and Kyoto's aristocrats were controlling still the political power, while an instability had appeared in the second half period with an emergence of samurai clans who not only took gradually the power from the former but fought one against another (battle between Heishi and Genji).

Heiankyo

heiannkyou
alternative words: Heian-kyo, Heian kyo, Capital Heian, Heankyo, Hean kyo, Capital Hean, Kyoto, Kyo no miyako
keywords: locality
related topics: Emperor Kanmu , Heian period , Taira no Kiyomori , Minamoto no Yoritomo , Onin war , Toyotomi Hideyoshi , Kebiishi
related web sites: http://japan.park.org/Japan/Kyoto/info/shimizu/home.html , http://www.heiankyo.co.jp , http://www.hi-ho.ne.jp/kyoto/heian.html
explanation: Built by Emperor Kanmu in 794 following Chinese capital "Choan" as model and remained as capital during more than 1000 years until 1869 excepting a short period of Fukuhara-kyo by Taira no Kiyomori. Its size is 5.3km from north to south and 4.6 km from west to east. After the opening of Kamakura shogunat by Yoritomo, its political role had greatly diminished. During Onin war of Muromachi period, most of the districts had been burned out but restored later during Hideyoshi's period.

Heijokyo

heijyoukyou naranomiyako nara
alternative words: Heijo-kyo, Heijo kyo, Capital Heijo, Heijo capital, Hejokyo, Hejo kyo, Capital Hejo, Nara, Nara no miyako
keywords: locality
related topics: Nara period , Nagaokakyo , Fujiwara no Fuhito
related web sites: http://www.gns.ne.jp/eng/cael/sketch/heijokyo/heijokyo.htm , http://www.asahi-net.or.jp/~DS3S-OOMR/kodai/asuka/heijo_toin.htm
explanation: Capital of Japan between 710 and 784. It was built by Empress Genmei, following Chinese style architectural plan. Its size is 4.7km from north to south and 4.3 km from west to east and each district is separated by straight roads running from north-south and west-east directions. The imperial palace was at the center in extreme north. After the move of Japanese capital to Nagaoka, all the districts had been deserted excepting for Buddhist temples like Todaiji and Kofukuji.

Heike monogatari

heikemonogatari
alternative words: Tale of Heike, Tale of the Heike, Heikemonogatari
keywords: book
related topics: Taira no Kiyomori , Heishi , Genji , Kamakura period
related web sites: http://www3.ocn.ne.jp/~mh23/
explanation: War tale written by an unknown author at the beginning of Kamakura period. It tells the history of the emergence of Heike to become the most powerful family in Japan and their disappearance at Dainoura (strait of Kanmon) after beaten by Genji. Its underlying philosophy is the nihilism peculiar to Buddhism (living creature should always die and formed object, disappear). The history was spread by itinerant monk tellers accompanied by lute music (Biwa hoshi).

Heishi

heishi tairashi heike
alternative words: Hei-shi, Heishi family, Tairashi, Taira-shi, Taira shi, Heike, Heike family, Heike clan
keywords: family
related topics: Taira no Masakado , Taira no Kiyomori , Genji , Minamoto no Yoritomo , Heian period , Gempei gassen , Heike monogatari
explanation: Prestigious samurai family stemmed from the 50th Emperor, Kanmu-tenno (737-806). After the revolt of Taira no Masakado, their power base was shifted to the western Japan. After an elimination of Genji family, Taira no Kiyomori took the power in Kyoto and became Dajo daijin. But later, Heike family was defeated by another Genji, Minamoto no Yoritomo, and the main branch had extinguished. Nevertheless many collateral families like Hojo or Hatakeyama had remained flourishing.

Hibachi

hibachi hioke
alternative words: Transportable brazier, Charcoal brazier, Hioki, Hibitsu
keywords: craft, thing
related topics: Nara period , Edo period
related web sites: http://www.saimeido.com , http://www.i-port.ne.jp/kankeimaru/
explanation: Transportable brazier used in traditional Japanese houses and made with porcelain jar of 30-40 cm diameter. It is served not only for occasional heating but also small cooking or boiling waters. Hibachi made with copper recipient existed already in Nara period but used only by aristocrats at that period. It is during Edo period that its use has been generalized in Japanese houses thanks to abundant ceramic ware. It should be used cautiously in a hermitic western house because of a risk of CO intoxication.

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