Online dictionary of history and traditions in Japan: Tengu,Tenjin,Tenno,Tenpo reform,Tenrikyo,Tofu,Tokonoma,Tokugawa Ieyasu,Tokugawa Yoshinobu,Tokugawashi

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Tengu

tenngu
keywords: god, mystery, religion
related topics: Heian period , Minamoto no Yoshitsune , Yamabushi
related web sites: http://www.asahi-net.or.jp/~fd4h-krng/
explanation: Humanoid creatures living in Japanese mountains. They were wearing clothes like training Buddhist monks (Yamabushi) and feared to be responsible of kidnapping thanks to their magical powers (able to fly with their fan and to make themselves invisible). Because of their physiognomy (red face and great nose), there exists a thesis that they might be survivors of a wrecked Arabic or Jewish merchant ship. Minamoto no Yoshitsune was considered as a Tengu because of his ability when he was young.

Tenjin

tennjinn tennjinnsama
alternative words: Tenjinsama, Tenjin-sama, Tenjin sama
keywords: god
related topics: Heian period , Dazaifu
related web sites: http://www.kitanotenmangu.or.jp , http://www.dazaifutenmangu.or.jp
explanation: After a high ranked politician of Heian period, Sugawara no Michizane, had been forced to exile to Dazaifu in Kyushu due to a false accusation and died there in 803, many natural calamities occurred in Kyoto. People, being afraid of his angry spirit, built a shrine at Kitano in Kyoto (Kitano Tenmangu shrine) to enshrine him as Tenjin (Heavenly god). Maichizane being also a well known scholar, Tenzin became a god of school and studies, and there exist 5000 child shrines of Tenmangu.

Tenno

tennnou ookimi mikado mikado
alternative words: Japanese emperor, Emperor, Tennou, Mikado
keywords: emperor, family, title
related topics: Prince Shotoku , Yamato dynasty , Nara period , 5 Japanese kings , Prince Yamatotakeru , Empress Jingu
related web sites: http://www.aura-press.com/scriba/index/tn-index.html , http://www.pure.co.jp/~cha-san/tennoryo.htm , http://www2.begin.or.jp/sakura/misasagi.htm , http://inoues.net/yamataikoku/tenno/tenno_meguri.html , http://www.kunaicho.go.jp
explanation: Term used to designate the Japanese sovereign. Initially called "Ookimi", i.e. "Big king", it was prince Shotoku who proclaimed himself as "emperor" in a letter addressed to Chinese emperor in 7th century, while interior of Japan, the term "Sumera mikoto" was used. During Nara period, the usage of "Shigou" i.e. "post-mortem name" appeared. Though the actual emperor is counted as 125th, it may be contestable because some documents qualify Yamatotakeru or Jingukogo as emperor.

Tenpo reform

tennpounokaikaku tennpoukaikaku
alternative words: Tenpo no kaikaku, Tempo reform, Tempo no kaikaku, Tenpou reform, Tenpou no kaikaku
keywords: event, law
related topics: Mizuno Tadakuni , Edo period , Edo shogunate , Daimyo , Hatamoto
explanation: Reform of Edo shogunate launched by Roju, Mizuno Tadakuni in 1841-43. Following the great famine of Tenpo in 1833-36, the deficit of Edo shogunate increased while a great inflation appeared in big cities such as Tokyo and Osaka. Mizuno Tadakuni ordered to stop the luxury and send back farmers to their homelands (Hitogaeshi). He tried also to concentrate shogun's land around Edo (Agechirei) but it provoked a strong opposition among hatamoto and daimyo and forced him to resign roju.

Tenrikyo

tennrikyou
alternative words: Tenri kyo, Tenri sect, Tenrikyo sect
keywords: religion, shintoism
related topics: Edo period , Meiji period , Shintoism
related web sites: http://www.tenrikyo.or.jp
explanation: Shintoism sect founded by Nakayama Miki, woman married with a rich farmer of Yamato region. Through an extreme sufferance of family problems, one day, she revealed the god wish by writing down an oracle and organized peasants to transform the society (yonaoshi). The movement was persecuted several times by Meiji government but recognized in 1908 after her death. Tenrikyo owns 16,000 temples over the world and an university. Its headquarters is located at Tenry city in Nara prefecture.

Tofu

touhu
alternative words: Toufu, Toofu, Bean curd, Touhu
keywords: food
related topics: Soy sauce
related web sites: http://www.aiweb.or.jp/otoufu/ , http://www2.nsknet.or.jp/~tofu/ , http://ww5.tiki.ne.jp/~takumian/
explanation: According to a legend, it was invented in China, 2000 years ago and introduced in Japan in the 7th century. It is made by ground soybeans boiled together with water. It is then filtered to separate solid part (okara) and liquid one (tounyu). Tounyo is then solidified by a coagulant (nigari) and pressed to form white rectangular blocks which are tofu. You can eat tofu alone with soy sauce or use it as ingredient in diverse Japanese dishes like miso soup or sukiyaki.

Tokonoma

tokonoma
alternative words: Japanese alcove, alcove
keywords: architecture, art
related topics: Muromachi period , Kakemono , Ikebana , Kagami mochi
explanation: During Muromachi period, in upper class houses, there existed place to hang a Buddhist picture scroll and to set a low table for incense or a flower base. This place had evolved to an alcove with a little elevated soil to replace the table. This place has lost the initial religious character but still remains, in traditional Japanese houses, as an ideal place to admire a changing season by hanging a picture scroll (Kekemono) and putting a flower base (Ikebana) before it.

Tokugawa Ieyasu

tokugawaieyasu matsudairaieyasu
alternative words: Ieyasu Tokugawa, Ieyasu
keywords: famous person, shogun, war lord
related topics: Sengoku period , Oda Nobunaga , Toyotomi Hideyoshi , Ishida Mitsunari , Battle of Sekigahara , Shogun , Edo shogunate , Tokugawashi
related web sites: http://member.nifty.ne.jp/gongen/ieyasu/ , http://www.shibuyam.com
explanation: Born in the family of a local war lord in 1542 in the west of Aichi Prefecture. Sandwiched between 2 powerful clans, Imagawa in the east and Oda in the west, he spent his youth as a hostage of those families. But with a great patience, he had successfully enlarge his feud. After his allied, Toyotomi Hideyoshi's death, Ieyasu entered in a conflict with Hideyoshi's deputy, Ishida Mitsunari and beaten him in the great battle of Sekigahara in 1600. He became shogun in 1603 and died in 1616.

Tokugawa Yoshinobu

tokugawayoshinobu tokugawakeiki
alternative words: Yoshinobu Tokugawa, Tokugawa Keiki, Hitotsubashi Keiki
keywords: famous person, meiji revolution, shogun
related topics: Edo shogunate , Shogun , Gosanke , Kanagawa treaty , Meiji revolution
related web sites: http://www.wnn.or.jp/wnn-history/bakumatsu/ishin/yosinobu/f_right.html , http://www.edu.pref.ibaraki.jp/rekishi/QandA/QandA.htm
explanation: Last and 15th shogun of Edo shogunate. Born in 1873 as the 7th son of Seignior Mito. He strongly criticized a weak attitude of Edo shogunate when Commodore Perry had forced Japan to open her harbors. He had been then condemned to a house confinement but soon pardoned and nominated to the adviser of 14th shogun Iemochi, whom Yoshinobu succeeded in 1866. At that moment, Edo shogunate had been shaken by many factors, he had to surrender to Emperor's army in 1868.

Tokugawashi

tokugawashi tokugawake tokugawa matsudaira
alternative words: Tokugawa family, Matsudaira family, Tokugawa, Matsudaira, Tokugawa ke, Matsudaira ke, Tokugawa shi, Matsudaira shi
keywords: family, war lord
related topics: Tokugawa Ieyasu , Oda Nobunaga , Imagawa Yoshimoto , Sengoku period , Daimyo , Edo shogunate , Tokugawa Yoshinobu
related web sites: http://www2.harimaya.com/aoi/
explanation: Tokugawa had been a tiny sengoku daimyo in the mountainous region of the eastern Aichi. After a sudden death of his ally, Imagawa Yoshimoto then Oda Nobunaga, Tokugawa Ieyasu received Kanto region as his fief by allying with Toyotomi Hideyoshi. He opened Edo shogunate in 1603 and the regime continued until 1868 when the 15th shogun Yoshinobu returned back the title of shogun. Ieyasu changed his name, Matsudaira to Tokugawa in 1566 but the sub-branches were always called Matsudaira.

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