alternative words: Shougun, Seitaishogun, Seiitaishogun, Sei tai shogun, Seii tai shogun, Sei taishogun, Seii taishogun, Seii daishogun
keywords: shogun, title
related topics: Shogunate , Minamoto no Yoritomo , Ashikaga Takauji , Ashikaga Yoshimitsu , Tokugawa Ieyasu
explanation: This title had appeared during Nara period and means "Great general to conquer barbarians". As its name indicates, the title holder had a prerogative to recruit soldiers to subdue Ainu's revolts, but it was temporary once. Gradually it had transformed to designate a supreme chef of samurais without any relation with Ainu. Since Kamakura period, the title had become permanent and used until the end of Edo period. Shogun (=general) is an abbreviation of Seitaishogun.
alternative words: Bakufu, Shogunates
keywords: office, shogun
related topics: Shogun , Kamakura shogunate , Muromachi shogunate , Edo shogunate , Minamoto no Yoritomo
explanation: Initially the term of Bakufu appeared in China to designate the headquarters of a general in expedition and means "office under tent". In Japan, after Minamoto no Yoritomo had become shogun and virtually replaced the prerogative of imperial court, the term was used to designate the shogun's office. There had existed 3 successive shogunates in Japan: Kamakura shogunate, Muromachi shogunate and Edo shogunate, and designate vaguely the period administered by respective shoguns.
alternative words: Shouji
related topics: Kamakura period , Japanese paper
related web sites: http://www.media-line.or.jp/shoujigami/ , http://www.tcct.zaq.ne.jp/koundo/
explanation: Initially it designated every movable and light structure such as fusuma (sliding screen) and tsuitate (screen) inside Japanese house. Since Kamakura period, thin white Japanese paper (washi) has been applied to wooden frames to let light penetrate inside room. Now, the term "Shoji" is specially used to this sliding screen as opposing to Fusuma which uses thick paper. Shoji still continues to be appreciated by may people because of the healthiness: it lets air to pass freely.
alternative words: Shokunihongi, Shoku nihonki, Shokunihonki
related topics: Nara period , Nihonshoki
explanation: One of the 6 official Japanese history books (Rikkokushi). Completed in 797 by Sugano no Mamichi as chief editor, it covers the period following Nihon shoki (697-791 AD). Composed with 40 volumes, it is considered the most fundamental document of Nara period history.
alternative words: Shugen-do, Shugen do, Shugendou
keywords: mystery, religion, shintoism
related topics: Esoteric Buddhism , Shingon sect , Tendai sect , Yamabushi , Heian period , Nara period , Shintoism , En no ozunu
related web sites: http://www1.tcnet.ne.jp/miko/ , http://www.os.rim.or.jp/~yfuku/ , http://www.coara.or.jp/~daikoin/ , http://www1.ocn.ne.jp/~nijitu/index.htm
explanation: Merging a mountain faith proper to Japan and Esoteric Buddhism coming from China, this religious practice had become popular during Heian period though En no ozunu of Nara period is considered the founder. It consists to carry out ascetic religious disciplines in mountains in order to increase the spiritual power. The members of this religious order are called "Yamabushi" and usually adhere to Shingon or Tendai sects. Their favorite training grounds are Mts Dewa, Futara, Ontake, Hakusan etc.
alternative words: Shugoshoku, Shugo-shoku, Shugo shoku
keywords: office, title
related topics: Kamakura shogunate , Minamoto no Yoritomo , Minamoto no Yoshitsune , Muromachi period , Gokenin , Kokushi , Kuni , Shugo daimyo
explanation: Shogun Yoritomo created a post of general police for each province (Kuni), "Shugo", by pretending a need to capture Yoshitsune. Shugo was charged to watch "Gokenin" and to assure the security of the province and became a governor's post, parallel to the preexisting "Kokushi". At the end of Kamakura period, most of the posts went to Hojo clan. During Muromachi period, some Shugo controlled several provinces and opposed to the shogunate, then became a war lord (Shugo daimyo).
alternative words: Shugodaimyo
keywords: title, war lord
related topics: Shugo , Kamakura shogunate , Muromachi shogunate , Daimyo , Takeda shingen , Imagawa Yoshimoto
explanation: Initially appointed by Kamakura shogunate in order to watch Gokenin of each province (Kuni), Shugo transformed gradually the appointed province to his own fief and the post heritable, when shoguns became weak at the end of Kamakura period. Muromachi shogunate was considered merely a coalition government powerful shugo daimyo. "Sengoku daimyo" then came to replace shugo daimyo. Takeda clan of Yamanashi and Imagawa clan of Shizuoka were shugo daimyo.
alternative words: Shun-ga, Shun ga, Erotic ukiyoe, Ukiyoe shunga
keywords: art, ukiyoe
related topics: Edo period , Ukiyoe , Hishikawa Moronobu , Katsushika Hokusai
related web sites: http://ptt01.ptt.co.jp/tnl/ukiyoe-j.htm , http://www2u.biglobe.ne.jp/~gaia-j/u.sakuhin.html
explanation: During Edo period, inhabitants of great towns like Tokyo and Osaka could enjoy divers entertainment, thanks to a warless state of more than 2 centuries, and also due to an imperfection of laws. For example, famous ukiyoe artists like Hishikawa Moronobu, Kitagawa Utamaro or Katsushika Hokusai, were competing for the publication of shunga, i.e. wooden prints which detail sex scenes. Accompanied with abundant comments, they serve as an enlightenment of the public, too.
alternative words: Shishi gaku, Neo Confucianism, Chu Hsi school, Zhu Xi school
keywords: china, philosophy, school
related topics: Edo shogunate , Hayashi Razan
explanation: Contrary to other Asian nations, Japanese had never been eager to adopt Confucianism and even sometimes persecuted it. After a take over of China by Manchu tribe in 17th century, many Chinese scholars fled to Japan and propagated Neo Confucianism which had been created during Song dynasty in 12th century. Its teaching, "the full respect of a social order" being perfectly fit to the needs of Edo shogunate, it became its official doctrine through the work of Hayashi Razan.
alternative words: Siberian expedition, Shiberia shuppei
keywords: event, war
related topics: Taisho period , Niko incident
related web sites: http://ww1.m78.com/sib/siberian%20expedition.html
explanation: After the revolution, Russia signed a separate treaty with Germany in March 1918. In order to protect Czechslovakian soldiers just liberated, the allied powers asked Japan to sent her troops to Siberia. Owing the important interests in Siberia, Japan sent the largest contingent with 70,000 men but due to the resistance of Bolsheviks, the expedition failed. After the withdrawal of other countries, Japan remained asking the reparation of Niko incident. She evacuated the troops in 1925.