Online dictionary of history and traditions in Japan: Saga domain,Saicho,Saigo Takamori,Saint Petersburg treaty,Saionji Kinmochi,Sakamoto Ryoma,Sakanoue no Tamuramaro,Sakata no kintaro,Sake,Sakhalin island

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Saga domain

sagahann nabeshimahann
alternative words: Saga han, Nabeshima domain, Nabeshima han, Nebeshima, Saga
keywords: meiji revolution, state
related topics: Sengoku period , Edo period , Meiji revolution , Hagakure
explanation: Occupying actual Saga prefecture during Edo period, the history of Nabeshima domain is unique. Nabeshima was a vassal of Ryuzoji during Sengoku period. Ryuzoji having no good leaders inside family, they decided to transfer peacefully their feud and appointed Nabeshima as their successor. Due to its vicinity to Nagasaki, they could mater quickly western technology and greatly contributed to Meiji revolution, though they had initially a pure samurai tradition like Hagakure.

Saicho

saichyou
alternative words: Saichou
keywords: buddhism, china, famous person, priest
related topics: Tendai sect , Heian period , Buddhism , Esoteric Buddhism , Kukai
related web sites: http://www.hieizan.or.jp
explanation: Born in 767 in Shiga prefecture. He studied Buddhism from the age 12 in different temples in Kinki region. In 804, he went to China with Kukai to study a new Buddhism trend and was authorized to found Tendai sect. He didn't hesitate to learn from Shingon sect of Kukai and severely criticize traditional Buddhism. During his life, his doctrine had not become popular but most of the new Buddhism sects of Kamakura period originated from his sect. He died in 822.

Saigo Takamori

saigoutakamori
alternative words: Takamori Saigo, Saigou Takamori, Takamori Saigou
keywords: famous person, meiji revolution, military man, statesman
related topics: Edo shogunate , Meiji revolution , Meiji period , Satsuma domain , Katsu Kaishu , Okubo Toshimichi , Seinan war
related web sites: http://www.page.sannet.ne.jp/ytsubu/ , http://reimeikan.pref.kagoshima.jp
explanation: One of the leaders of Meiji Revolution. Born in a modest family of samurai in 1827 at Kagoshima. Recognized by seignior Shimazu Nariakira, he got a post of responsibility. After the death of Nariakira, he committed a suicide but miraculously survived. Nevertheless he was sentenced to a banishment because of his pro western opinion. Later he greatly contributed to the fall of Edo shogunate in 1868. In 1877, he organized a samurai's revolt in Kyushu but killed himself after the defeat.

Saint Petersburg treaty

chishimakarahutokoukannjyouyaku
alternative words: Treaty of Saint Petersburg, Kuril Sakhalin exchange treaty, Treaty of Kuril Sakhalin exchange, Chishima karafuto kokan joyaku
keywords: northern territory, treaty
related topics: Shimoda treaty , Enomoto Takeaki , Sakhalin island
related web sites: http://list.room.ne.jp/~lawtext/1875Karafuto-Chishima.html
explanation: After the treaty of Shimoda, Sakhalin remained undelimited and this provoked repeated incidents between Russian and Japanese colons. In order to make up this situation, Japanese government sent an ambassador plenipotentiary, Enomoto Takeaki, to Saint Petersburg to settle a definitive frontier. The treaty, concluded in 1875 between 2 countries, stipulates that Japan gave up all the right on Sakhalin island and in exchange they recuperate all the Kuril islands up to Kamchatka peninsula.

Saionji Kinmochi

saionnjikinnmochi
alternative words: Kinmochi Saionji
keywords: famous person, meiji revolution, statesman
related topics: Meiji revolution , Boshin war , Edo shogunate , Genro
related web sites: http://ww1.m78.com/hito/saionji.html , http://www.bun.kyoto-u.ac.jp/~knagai/works/saionji.htm
explanation: Born in 1849 as son of an aristocrat, Tokudaiji Kinito and adopted by Saionji family. Unhappy with the conservatism of Kyoto's nobility, he engaged in Boshin war against Edo shogunate. In 1871, he went to study the law in France and founded Meiji university in his return. Recognized by Ito Hirobumi during his trip in Europe, he became his education minister. In 1903, the president of a political party, Seiyukai. Japanese chief delegate at Versailles conference in 1919. He died in 1940 as the last Genro.

Sakamoto Ryoma

sakamotoryouma
alternative words: Ryoma Sakamoto, Sakamoto Ryouma, Ryouma Sakamoto, Sakamoto Ryuma, Ryuma Sakamoto
keywords: famous person, meiji revolution
related topics: Bakumatsu , Edo shogunate , Meiji revolution , Katsu Kaishu , Tosa domain
related web sites: http://www2.net-kochi.gr.jp/~kenbunka/ryoma/ , http://www.asahi-net.or.jp/~jp3t-tris/tk_ryoma.html , http://www02.so-net.ne.jp/~ryoma/ , http://www.city.kochi.kochi.jp/ryoma/yukari.htm , http://www2.inforyoma.or.jp/~kaien/
explanation: One of the leaders of Meiji Revolution. Born in 1835 in a samurai family of Tosa domain. He began to learn swordsmanship at Tokyo but quickly changed his preference to "navigation technique" thanks to an influence of a prowestern samurai, Katsu Kaishu. Then he greatly contributed not only to build modern merchant and military fleets in different regions of Japan but to unify divers prowestern movements. Unfortunately he was assassinated in 1867 at Kyoto without seeing the reward.

Sakanoue no Tamuramaro

sakanouenotamuramaro
alternative words: Sakanoueno Tamuramaro
keywords: famous person, northern territory
related topics: Heian period , Ezo , Shogun
related web sites: http://www.page.sannet.ne.jp/gutoku2/emisiseitou1.html , http://www09.u-page.so-net.ne.jp/gb3/s-kimura/tamuramaro/tamuindex.htm
explanation: Born in 758 and died in 811. Japanese military man of the beginning of Heian period. He successfully subdued Ainu's revolts in Tohoku region. Since his expeditions, large scale revolts have stopped. He had been a shogun but this title was still temporary at that epoch. A legend says that after the conquest of Ainu's country, he would erected a stele indicating "center of Japan" because all Ainu's land up to Kamchatka peninsula should belong to Japan.

Sakata no kintaro

sakatanokinntarou sakatanokinntoki kinntarou kaidoumaru
alternative words: Kintaro, Sakata no Kintoki, Sakatano Kintaro, Kaido maru, Kintarou
keywords: craft, famous person, kabuki, tale
related topics: Konjaku monogatari , Heian period , Edo period , Kabuki , Tango no sekku
related web sites: http://www.city.minamiashigara.kanagawa.jp/A/A0500/A0500.htm , http://www2c.airnet.ne.jp/toyo/
explanation: A legendary figure of Heian period and one of 4 followers (Shitenno) of Minamoto no Yorimitsu who killed a famous bandit, Shutendoji of Mt Oeyama. According to Konjaku monogatari he would be raised by a yamauba (mountain witch) and trained his force with bears at Mt Ashigara near Hakone. During Edo period, he appeared in Joruri and Kabuki plays as a red boy with an ax and a stomach cover. His doll is also set during the boy's festival (Tango no sekku) in May.

Sake

sake nihonnshyu seishyu
alternative words: Japanese sake, Nihonshu, Seishu, Seshu, Japanese alcohol
keywords: food
related topics: Shintoism , Muromachi period
related web sites: http://www.japansake.or.jp , http://www.remus.dti.ne.jp/~yama-chi/seisyu/seisyu.html , http://www.ics.co.jp/touji/ , http://www.page.sannet.ne.jp/mo-ca/ , http://www.media-akita.or.jp/akita-sake/akita-sake.html
explanation: Japanese alcohol made with steamed rice and water with an addition of malted rice (koji) as a fermentation agent. The history of sake is old as Japanese history itself and strongly associated with Shinto rite. So, initially it had been made principally by Shinto shrines and the imperial court. Since Muromachi period, its fabrication technique has been popularized. Nowadays, there are about 3000 sake breweries in Japan and the main production regions are Hyogo and Kyoto prefectures.

Sakhalin island

karahuto karahuto saharinn kitaezo
alternative words: Sakhalin, Saghalian, Sagalian, Karafuto, Karafuto island
keywords: locality, northern territory, russia
related topics: Matsumae domain , Kushunkotan , Shimoda treaty , Saint Petersburg treaty , Portsmouth treaty
related web sites: http://www.karafuto.com
explanation: Sakhalin is a very long (1000 km) but narrow (200 km in its largest extent) island located between Japan and Russian maritime territory. It is separated from the continent by a narrow strait of 6 km width and for that reason, first, westerners thought it should be a peninsula. During Edo period, Matsumae exploited the southern part of Sakhalin with Kushunkotan as its center. The 3 successive treaties, i.e. Shimoda (1855), Saint Petersburg (1875), Portsmouth (1905) changed the ownerships of Sakhalin.

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