En no ozunu
alternative words: Ennoozunu, Enno ozunu, En no kimi ozunu, En no gyoja, Ennogyoja, Enno gyoja
keywords: famous person, mystery, religion
related topics: Shugendo , Asuka period , Nara period , Ninja , Shoku nihongi
related web sites: http://server1.seafolk.ne.jp/~enigma/ennoozunu.htm
explanation: Sorcerer of late Asuka and early Nara period. According to Shoku Nihongi, he practiced asceticism at Mt Katsuragi in Asuka region and was banished in 699 to Izu province because people would be troubled by his magic. Able to fly in sky, walk on waters or block others by thought, En no ozunu was considered the founder of Shugendo and venerated by Ninja. There exist many legends about him all over Japan.
alternative words: Takeaki Enomoto, Enomoto Buyo, Buyo Enomoto, Enomoto Buyou, Buyou Enomoto
keywords: famous person, meiji revolution, military man, northern territory, statesman
related topics: Meiji revolution , Saint Petersburg treaty , Hatamoto , Boshin war
explanation: Born in 1836 in a Hatamoto family. He learned naval technique in Tokyo and Nagasaki to become himself a teacher. Between 1862 and 1866, he studied in Holland naval technique and international law. After returned back to Japan, he was nominated to Marine Minister (Kaigun bugyo) of Tokugawa shogunate. After its defeat in 1868, he refused to surrender and fled to Hakodata with his ships, but finally pardoned. He served then in many ministerial posts of Meiji government.
alternative words: Mikkyo, Mikkyou
keywords: buddhism, religion
related topics: Buddhism , Nyorai , Bosatsu , Heian period , Kukai , Saicho
explanation: Buddhism school initiated in India around 7th century, 2 visiting Buddhist students, Saicho and Kukai, brought it from China at the beginning of Heian period. Associated to mountain faith, it became very popular and entered a conflict with preexistent Buddhism. So Saicho founded Tendai sect at Enryakuji in Mt Hiei while Kukai, Shingon sect at Kongobuji in Mt Koya. Related to Tibetan Buddhism, the doctrine says that every Buddha and Bostatu should be an avatar of Dainichi Nyorai.
alternative words: Emishi, Ainu
keywords: minority, northern territory
related topics: Ezochi , Nara period , Heian period , Sakanoue no Tamuramaro , Ezochi
related web sites: http://www.hi-net.ne.jp/~ma/ , http://yositune.ichinoseki.ac.jp/SATOK/idea/aterui.html , http://www.geocities.co.jp/SilkRoad-Desert/5231/
explanation: Old name of Ainu. Initially populated all Japanese archipelagoes, they had been gradually pushed away to the north. During Nara period, they were still living in Tohoku region and had repeated revolted agains Yamato court. Nevertheless, after a conquest of Sakanoue no Tamuramaro in the early Heian period, their revolts had ceased and their territory had been shrunk to Ezochi, i.e. actual Hokkaido. Ezo is a phonetic deformation of "enju" or "emchiu" in Ainu's language and means "man".
alternative words: Ezo-chi, Ezo chi, Land of Ezo, Land of Ainu, Ezo domain, Ainu domain
keywords: locality, northern territory
related topics: Edo period , Ezo , Mogami Tokunai , Mamiya Rinzo , Matsuura Takeshiro , Matsumae domain , Hakodate bugyo
related web sites: http://www.komonsan.on.arena.ne.jp/htm/tokusyu12.htm , http://www.lib.hokudai.ac.jp/hokkaido/mukashi/nenpyo.html , http://www.lib.hokudai.ac.jp/collection/hoppo/
explanation: In a narrow sense, it designates actual Hokkaido but more general sense, it does all the lands where Ainu were living. For example, during Nara period, it begins from actual Tohoku region but, later, from Muromach period its border embraced actual Hokkaido, Sakhalin and Kuril. During Edo period, this term had been synonymous to Matsumae domain because it is this family who governed those lands.
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