alternative words: National seclusion, National seclusion policy
related topics: Edo shogunate , Commodore Perry , Kanagawa treaty , Dejima , Siebold , Rangaku
related web sites: http://www3.justnet.ne.jp/~nibc/nagasaki.html
explanation: Foreign policy of Edo shogunate between 1639 and 1853. It consists of banning the commerce with Portuguese and Spaniards, and Christian missionary work. It banned also a foreign travel of Japanese. Chinese and Hollanders were allowed to trade with Japanese only in Deshima island at Nagasaki. This law not enumerating the authorized countries, it provoked a discontent when Russians arrived in 19th century but it is an American, Commodore Perry who broke up the law in 1853.
alternative words: Bushi
keywords: war lord
related topics: Battle of Hakusukinoe , Shoen , Heian period , Edo period , Daimyo , Bushido , Japanese sword , Harakiri
related web sites: http://www.mmjp.or.jp/askanet/
explanation: After a disaster of Hakusukinoe and the political turmoil which followed, a great number of Korean warriors took refuge in Japan, especially in sparsely populated Kanto region. Then, gradually they became private guardians of aristocrats' manors. Engaged several times in conflicts between these aristocrats, samurais themselves ended in owners of manors at the end of Heian period. Until Edo period, many farmers were part-time samurai. Samurai comes from an old word "saburau", i.e. attendant.
alternative words: Yukimura Sanada
keywords: famous person, war lord
related topics: Sengoku period , Battle of Sekigahara , Ishida Mitsunari , Toyotomi Hideyoshi , Siege of Osaka castle
related web sites: http://www2u.biglobe.ne.jp/~sanada/ , http://www4.plala.or.jp/saemon/ , http://www02.so-net.ne.jp/~goshin/sanada.htm , http://www.akihiko.f2s.com
explanation: Born in 1569 as the second son of Sanada Masayuki in Nagano prefecture. He adhered first to Toyotomi Hideyoshi by participating to the capture of Odawara castle. During the battle of Sekigahara, he adhered with his father to Ishida Mitsunari and bothered the troops led by Tokugawa Hidetada from their castle of Ueda. After the battle, he was expelled to Mt Koya. He participated then to the defense of Osaka castle held by Toyotomi Hideyori and died during an assault in 1615.
alternative words: Sanjamatsuri, Sanjasai, Sanja matsuri, Sanja sai
keywords: festival, religion
related topics: Shintoism , Kamakura period , Mikoshi
related web sites: http://www.asakusa.net , http://www.geocities.co.jp/HeartLand-Gaien/1428/ , http://asakusa.pos.to
explanation: One of the 3 major shinto festivals in Tokyo along with Kanda festival and Sanno festival. It occurs at Asakusa shrine located inside Asakusa temple on the 3rd weekend of each May. According to shrine's annals, it began during Kamakura period from an oracle to worship 3 founders of Asakusa temple. It is really impressive to observe a parade of more than 100 portable shrines (Mikoshi). Binzasara dance shown at the start of Sanja festival is well known, too.
alternative words: Sankin kotai, Sankinkoutai, Sankin koutai
related topics: Edo shogunate , Daimyo , Edo period , Buke shohatto , Edo
related web sites: http://www.wnn.or.jp/wnn-tokyo/edo/sankin/sankin1.html , http://www.iwatanet.com/mitsuke/400/daimyo/mame.html , http://www.pref.aichi.jp/dourokensetsu/tokaido/untiku/5230.html , http://www.tecnet.or.jp/hakone/ha0104k0.htm , http://www.pref.ishikawa.jp/muse/rekihaku/kasou/daimyo.html
explanation: During Edo period, in order to control strictly each daimyo, Edo shogunate forced them to travel every year between their feuds and Edo (actual Tokyo) while their wives and heirs had to live permanently in Edo. Though a similar system had already existed in Sengoku period, the shogunate institutionalized it under "Buke shohatto" law in 1615. It happened also to be a very ruinous practice because some daimyo had to travel with a cortege of more than 1000 followers during 1 month.
alternative words: Santan tribe, Santanjin, Santan jin, Nivkhi, Nibuhi
keywords: minority, northern territory
related topics: Edo period , Ezochi , Matsumae domain , Kushunkotan
explanation: Different small people living on the delta of Amur river and the north of Sakhalin such as Nivkhi, Guiliyak or Orochin. During Edo period, they used to go down with small boats along Sakhalin coast in summer season to trade with Japanese at Kushunkotan. They brought not only leathers and feathers of animals but also rare Chinese clothes to exchange with Japanese sake or iron tools. This practice was called "Santan koeki" i.e. Santan trade.
alternative words: Saru gaku
keywords: china, theater
related topics: Noh , Kyogen , Kamakura period , Muromachi period
explanation: Attraction frequently played during the middle ages in Japan. Initially called "Sangaku", it came from China during Nara period and included acrobatics, juggling, conjuring, and pantomime. It had then merged with a rural Japanese play "Dengaku" and evolved to more abstract drama while giving up acrobatic elements during Kamakura and Muromachi periods. The music based serious part became "Noh" while the speech based funny part, "Kyogen" at the end of Muromachi period.
alternative words: Sasuke
keywords: famous person, ninja, swordsman
related topics: Ninja , Ninjutsu , Sengoku period , Sanada Yukimura
related web sites: http://www.sanada.or.jp , http://www.islands.ne.jp/imabari/sasuke/
explanation: Famous legendary ninja of Sengoku period. He learned Ninjutsu from Tozawa Hakuunsai of Koga school. Engaged in Sanada Yukimura's battalion as "Sanada Juyushi" (10 heroes of Sanada), he should have died in 1615 during the summer battle of Osaka castle (Osaka natsunojin).
alternative words: Kojiro Sasaki, Sasaki Kojirou, Kojirou Sasaki, Sasaki Ganryu, Ganryu Sasaki, Kojiro, Kojirou
related topics: Miyamoto Musashi , Sengoku period , Edo period
related web sites: http://www.tip.ne.jp/stca/hito/kozirou/
explanation: Famous swordsman of Sengoku and early Edo periods. Born in Fukui prefecture but birthday unknown. A legend says that by trying to cut off flying swallows with a sword at Kintaibashi bridge, he would invent "Tsubamegaeshi" tactic, i.e. "return back (sword stroke) as swallows". Finally he challenged Miyamoto Musashi at Ganryu islet near Shimonoseki in 1612. A legend says that in order to fight against Kojiro's long sword, Musashi would use an oar of his boat and Kojiro died.
alternative words: Tsukuri, Tsukurimi
related topics: Soy sauce , Sushi , Fugu
related web sites: http://www.coara.or.jp/~sueyoshi/
explanation: Initially fresh fishes were eaten with vinegar (Namasu). Gradually it has been replaced by soy sauce. Usually fishes cut off to small pieces are consumed by dipping into soy sauce with shredded radish or wasabi (horseradish). When they are arranged to preserve the initial form, it is called "ikizukuri". Most appreciated are tune fish and bonito among red meat fishes, and flounder and horse mackerel among whites. Some mollusk such as shrimp and a bit boiled octopus are also appreciated.
Pocket Electronic Dictionary