Invasion of Korea朝鮮出兵 文禄の役 慶長の役 文禄・慶長の役
alternative words: Bunroku no eki, Keicho no eki, Bunroku Keicho no eki, Bunroku Keicho attack, Korean campaign
keywords: china, korea, war
related topics: Sengoku period , Toyotomi Hideyoshi , Kato Kiyomasa , Arita ware , Satsuma ware
related web sites: http://homepage1.nifty.com/forty-sixer/hideyoshi.htm
explanation: Aware of a smallness of Japan, Toyotomi Hideyoshi decided, after its unification, to invade China. He began first to send troops to Korea in May 1592. Ill prepared, Koreans were quickly defeated and Japanese reached Manchuria frontier in few months. It provoked in turn a massive response of Chinese troops and the both countries signed an armistice. Unhappy with it, Hideyoshi sent again troops in 1597 but this time the campaign was more difficult and ended with the death of Hideyoshi.
蒙古襲来 文永の役 弘安の役 文永・弘安の役 元寇
alternative words: Mongol invasion, Bunei no eki, Koan no eki, Bunei Koan no eki, Mouko shurai, Moko shurai
related topics: Kamakura shogunate , Nichiren , Kamakura period , Dazaifu , Hojo Tokimune , Kamikaze
related web sites: http://www.lib.nakamura-u.ac.jp/e-lib/sato/head.htm
explanation: Kublai Khan requested Japan to become his vassal state but no answer. In October 1274, 40,000 Mongol and Korean soldiers appeared on Hakata bay. First, Japanese were retreating but in afternoon, thanks to reinforcements, the front was frozen. Mongols retreated to their ships in night but a fierce gale sunk them. In June 1281, 140,000 men with reinforcements of Chinese troops arrived at the same point But this time due to stone walls, they are unable to debark while another gale sunk them.
alternative words: Isemonogatari, Tale of Ise
keywords: book, poesy
related topics: Heian period , Waka , Kokinwakashu
related web sites: http://www.isemonogatari.com , http://www.museum.pref.mie.jp/saiku/siryou/001-ise/ise-top.htm , http://www.page.sannet.ne.jp/kakomo2/isemain.html
explanation: Created in the early Heian period, it is one of the most famous and oldest utamonogatari (tales composed alternatively with short texts and waka poems). Containing several poems of a famous poet, Ariwara no Narihira, initially the authorship had been attributed to him but now no one believes it. Composed of 125 short episodes which form the biography of an aristocrat (supposed to be Ariwara no Narihira), it was considered, with Kokinshu, one of the most influential lyric works of this period.
alternative words: Mitsunari Ishida, Mitsunari
keywords: famous person, war lord
related topics: Sengoku period , Toyotomi Hideyoshi , Tokugawa Ieyasu , Battle of Sekigahara
related web sites: http://members.tripod.com/k_hayasaka/index.htm , http://www.biwa.ne.jp/~ishidamt/ , http://ww3.tiki.ne.jp/~yang/b2-ishida.htm
explanation: Born in 1560 in Shiga prefecture. He served near Toyotomi Hideyoshi very young. His cleverness especially in accounting and logistic matters had greatly contributed to the unification of Japan by Hideyoshi because he had to manage bigger and bigger army with the time. As 5 bugyos (commissioners), he measured precisely the surface of rice fields all over Japan. After the death of Hideyoshi, he entered a conflict with Tokugawa Ieyasu. After the defeat of Sekigahara in 1600, he was executed.
alternative words: Taisuke Itagaki
keywords: famous person, meiji revolution, statesman
related topics: Meiji revolution , Meiji period
related web sites: http://www.edu.net-kochi.gr.jp/area/jiyuu/jiyuu003.htm , http://www.i-kochi.or.jp/prv/kumongo/itagaki.htm , http://www.izumishobo.co.jp/iode31-3a.htm
explanation: Born in 1837 in a samurai family of Tosa domain. During Meiji revolution, he had greatly contributed to beat the resistance of Tohoku region. For that reason, he got an important post in the newly created Meiji government but quickly left it because of a dispute on the Korean policy. Then he strove for the creation of a Japanese parliament by forming "Liberal Party". He was nearly killed by a terrorist attack in 1882. He died in 1919 and is considered the father of Japanese democracy.
alternative words: Hirobumi Ito, Itou Hirobumi, Hirobumi Itou, Itoh Hirobumi
keywords: famous person, korea, meiji revolution, statesman
related topics: Meiji Revolution , Meiji period , Choshu domain , Yoshida Shoin , Genro , Meiji constitution
related web sites: http://www.urban.ne.jp/home/momorx/
explanation: Born in 1841 in a poor family of Choshu domain. After studies in Yoshida Shoin's school, he was sent to England to learn western technology but returned back when a war against 4 colonial powers broke out. After the restoration of Meiji, he became the most influential man and worked on the elaboration of Meiji constitution to become himself the first Japanese prime minister. Favorable to the annexation of Korea, he was assassinated by a nationalist in 1909 in Manchuria.
Ito Ittosai伊東一刀斎 伊藤一刀斎
alternative words: Ittosai Ito, Itou Ittosai, Ittosai Itou, Ittosai
keywords: famous person, swordsman
related topics: Sengoku period
related web sites: http://www.geocities.co.jp/Bookend/4591/novel.html
explanation: Famous swordsman of late Sengoku period and early Edo period. Born at Ito in Izu peninsula around 1560 and learned the sword tactic alone then Shinkage school from Kanemaki Jisai. He founded then Ittoryu (school of one stroke) and allowed Ono Tadaaki to succeed him. According to a legend, he carried out 33 combats during his travel to find adversaries all over Japan and never lost. He died in 1628 (according to some source in 1632).
alternative words: Tomomi Iwakura
keywords: famous person, meiji revolution, statesman
related topics: Bakumatsu , Meiji revolution , Edo shogunate , Emperor Komei
related web sites: http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/ro/gi11496/00/0b-007.html
explanation: Born in 1825 in a low ranked noble family then adopted by higher raked Iwakura family to become a chamberlain of Emperor Komei. Initially anti-westerner and for a corporation of imperial and Tokugawa families (Kobugattairon), he shifted gradually his opinion to the suppression of Edo shogunate. After a fall of the latter, he strove for the creation of a centralized western style regime around the emperor. He opposed to a punitive expedition to Korea. He died in 1883.
Izanagi Izanami伊邪那岐・伊邪那美 伊邪那岐命 伊邪那美命
alternative words: Izanami Izanagi, Izanagi, Izanami, God Izanagi, Godess Izanami, Izanaki, God Izanaki
keywords: god, mythology
related topics: Amaterasu , Susano , Tsukuyomi , Kojiki , Nihonshoki , Oyashima
explanation: The first concrete deity in Japanese mythology. Initially the Earth's surface had been covered with mud. When god Izanagi put his saber into mud and pull out, the drops coagulated themselves to form Onokoro island. There, Izanagi and his wife Izanami made love and gave birth to the 8 Japanese main islands (Oyashima). Then Izanami gave birth to many Japanese gods. When she gave birth a fire god, she died of the burn and became the guard of the Hell. Then Izanagi created Amaterasu, Susano and Tsukuyomi.
alternative words: Izumo ocho, Izumoocho, Izumo ouchou, Izumo
keywords: family, mythology, state
related topics: Nihonshoki , Yamato dynasty , Susano , Okuninushi
related web sites: http://www.lares.dti.ne.jp/~sako/ , http://www.furutasigaku.jp/jfuruta/kouen4/kouen4.html
explanation: Located in Shimane prefecture, Izumo region had been the first political center of Japan, because not only it owned an important iron mine but a maritime current arrives there from the eastern Korean coast. According to Nihonshoki, the dynasty should have been created by Susano and his son in law, Okuninushi no mikoto but later peacefully surrendered to Yamato dynasty. The discovery of a huge number of bronze sabers at Kojin valley in 1984 confirmed the existence of this dynasty.