alternative words: Grave of Christ, Tomb of Jesus Christ, Grave of Jesus Christ
related web sites: http://www.page.sannet.ne.jp/tsuzuki/crist.htm , http://www008.upp.so-net.ne.jp/k-hime/
explanation: Grave of Christ was discovered by Takenouchi Oomaro, founder of Amatsu sect, in 1935 at Herai village (actual Shingo) in the east of Lac Towada. According to a legend, it is not Chris who should have been crucified but his young brother. He would have successfully fled from the persecution and arrived Japan through the central Asia and Siberia. He argued that Herai should be a phonetic deformation of Hebrai.
Tongzhou incident通州事件 通州
alternative words: Tsushu incident, Tsushujiken, Tsushu jiken, Tongzhou massacre, Tsushu massacre
keywords: china, event, war
related web sites: http://www.asahi-net.or.jp/~KU3N-KYM/tyousa02/tushu5.htm , http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Academy/9246/tongzhou.htm
explanation: On 29 July 1937, hundreds of Japanese civilians were slaughtered at Tsushu (Tongzhou) in the eastern suburb of Peking. The incident was provoked by the militia of pro Japanese Kito (Jidong) government which formed a buffer zone between the mainland China and Manchukuo. By taking advantage of an absence of Japanese troops who went to fight elsewhere, they attacked Japanese civilians and massacred with cruel methods. China recognized the responsibility and paid the reparation.
alternative words: Pork cutlet
related topics: Meiji period
related web sites: http://homepage2.nifty.com/faddist/nichitonkai-1.html , http://www4.justnet.ne.jp/~modume/
explanation: One of Japanese dishes appeared during Meiji period by imitating western dishes (Yoshoku) and adapting to Japanese taste. It is prepared by dredging a slice of pork loin or tenderloin lightly in flour, dipping it in beaten egg, breading, and deep-frying. It is customarily served with shredded cabbage and dressed with a Japanese version of Worcestershire sauce.
alternative words: Torii gate, Shrine gate, Shinto gate, Torii shinto gate, Torii portal, Shrine portal, Shinto portal
keywords: architecture, shintoism
related topics: Shintoism , Yayoi period , Shimenawa
explanation: Portal to enter a shinto sanctuary. 2 horizontal bars are supported by 2 vertical sticks (it looks like rugby porch but the vertical sticks don't surpass the horizontal ones). The topmost bar is called Kasagi while the 2d bar little below is called Nuki where man hangs sometimes shinto decoration such as straw festoon (shimenawa). Torii means "bird sitting" because birds are frequently sitting there. But birds may represent also a totem symbol, if torii is a relic of Yayoi village's entry.
alternative words: Tosahan, Tosa-han, Tosa han, Tosa
keywords: meiji revolution, state
related topics: Sengoku period , Battle of Sekigahara , Edo period , Meiji revolution , Sakamoto Ryoma
explanation: Covering the southern coast of Shikoku island, the region had been once unified by Chosogabe family during Sengoku period. After Chosogabe lost the battle of Sekigahara in 1600, Tosa became the feud of Yamanouchi family during Edo period. Tosa domain was one of the great contributors of Meiji revolution in 1868, thanks to Sakamoto Ryoma who created Japanese first western style fleet and Iwasaki Yataro, founder of Mitsubishi corporation.
Toshusai Sharaku東洲斎写楽 写楽
alternative words: Sharaku Toshusai, Toushuusai Sharaku, Sharaku Toushuusai, Sharaku
keywords: artist, famous person, mystery, ukiyoe
related topics: Edo period , Ukiyoe , Katsushika Hokusai
related web sites: http://j-entertain.co.jp/Bellsystem/SharakuWorld/Edoinformation/WSharaku-j.html , http://www.lint.ne.jp/~meirokun/sharaku2.htm , http://www.fsinet.or.jp/~h-arita/sharaku.html
explanation: An obscure ukiyoe artist of the middle Edo period. The birth date and place unknown. Because he has left splendid ukiyoe works only during a short period around 1794-1795, it is suggested that Sharaku should be a pseudonym of another well known artist like Katsushika Hokusai or Maruyama Okyo. Being specialized in portrait of kabuki actors, his works show lively their face and gesture.
Toyotomi Hideyoshi豊臣秀吉 木下藤吉郎 羽柴秀吉
alternative words: Hideyoshi Toyotomi, Hideyoshi
keywords: famous person, korea, war lord
related topics: Sengoku period , Azuchi Momoyama period , Oda Nobunaga , Invasion of Korea , Ishida Mitsunari
related web sites: http://www.biwa.ne.jp/event/hideyosi/ , http://www.na.rim.or.jp/~magnet/hideyo1.html
explanation: Born in a modest family of samurai in 1536, Nobunaga recognized immediately his talent after an enrollment to the army, and Hideyoshi answered well his requests in many circumstances. After a surprising assassination of his boss by Akechi Mitsuhide in 1582, Hideyoshi killed the latter and continued the work of his superior, i.e. unification of Japan. Unsatisfied with his achievement, he sent troops to Korea to become Chinese Emperor but died in 1598 without seeing the result.
alternative words: Tozama daimyo
keywords: title, war lord
related topics: Daimyo , Edo period , Battle of Sekigahara , Koku , Fudai , Tokugawa Ieyasu , Sengoku period
explanation: Title given to daimyo during Edo period. They had allied to Tokugawa family since Battle of Sekigahara in 1600. Many had been competitors of Tokugawa Ieyasu during Sengoku period before he unified Japan. Though Tozama controlled large domains such as Maeda of Kaga with 1 million koku and Shimazu of Satsuma with 0,7 million koku, they were not allowed to participate to Edo shogunate's cabinet.
alternative words: Sword guard, Japanese sword guard
keywords: art, craft
related topics: Japanese sword , Heian period , Kamakura period , Muromachi period , Azuchi Momoyama period , Edo period
related web sites: http://www.n-p-s.net/tuba.htm
explanation: Initially made with iron or copper of about 8 cm diameter, it was transformed to superposed leather in the late Heian period due to its suppleness. Because the leather deteriorates in the end, tsuba became again metallic in Muromachi period. Inlaying other materials (Zogan) or with an openwork (Sukashibori), tsuba became a complex art work and gave famous artists such as Umetada Myoju of Azuchi Momoyama period, and Hayashi Shigeharu, Hirata Hikozo and Shimizu Jingoro of Edo period.
alternative words: Tsuchigumo tribe, Ground spider
related topics: Kofun period , Nihonshoki , Yamato dynasty , Ezo , Kumaso , Asuka period
explanation: Minority who had opposed a resistance to Yamato dynasty everywhere during Kofun period. Contrary to Ainu (Ezo) or Kumaso, they were not associated to any specific geography area. Nihonshoki says that the name stems from the fact they have a small head and long limbs, and living in caves. But it may not be a racial physiognomy but merely an intention to contempt them. They disappeared from Japanese history in the next Asuka period.